1 Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology

2 Department of Foreign Languages, Islamic Azad University of Kohgiluye and Boyer Ahmad, Iran


The present study intended to look into and compare the possible effects of Competitive Team-Based Learning (CTBL) with Learning Together (LT) or Cooperative Group-Based Learning (CGBL) – the most popular method of Cooperative Learning (CL) -- on oral performance of Iranian EFL intermediate students.
After administering the oral interview, this researcher selected a group of 40 almost homogeneous Iranian intermediate students and randomly assigned them to control and experimental groups – 20 per group. Based on their scores, the experimental class were divided into 5 almost heterogeneous teams - four members each. But in the control group, the participants were allowed to shape their own favourable groups. For six weeks (18 sessions of 90 minutes each), both the groups received the same course materials, instructor, curriculum, out of-class and in-class assignments, schedule of instruction and equivalent methods of evaluation, but the experimental group experienced language learning via CTBL rather than via the CGBL as their counterparts in the control group.
At the end of the course again the oral interview was administered to both the groups. Then the obtained scores on pre-test and post-test were analyzed through different statistical procedures. The results of the study rejected the null hypothesis and provided evidence supporting the hypothesis that CTBL can have a more significant effect on improving the oral performance of Iranian intermediate students. This researcher will discuss the probable causes for the results of the study, and will shed light on the pedagogical implications. She will also suggest recommendations for further research.


ziz, Z., & Hosain, M. A. (2010). A comparison of cooperative learning and conventional teaching on students’ achievement in secondary mathematics. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 53-62.  
Farhady, Ja'fapur, and Birjandi (1994). Testing language skills: From theory to practice. Tehran: SAMT.
Farzaneh, N. and Nejadansari, D. (214).
Students’ Attitude towards Using Cooperative Learning for Teaching Reading Comprehension. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4 (2), 287-292.  
Gillies, R. M. (2004). The effects of cooperative learning on junior high school students during small group learning. Learning and Instruction, 14, 197-213.  
Hosseini, S. M. H. (2000). The effect of competitive team-based learning on the reading comprehension of Iranian senior high school students. Roshd FLT Journal, 20, 42– 49.

Hosseini, S. M. H. (2000). The effects of competitive team-based learning on the reading comprehension of high school students. Unpublished MA Dissertation.  Garmsar Azad University, Iran.  
Hosseini, S. M. H. (2009). Effectiveness of cooperative learning methods: A study with Iranian and Indian undergraduate learners. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Mysore University, India.  
Hosseini, S. M. H. (2010). Theoretical foundations of competitive team-based learning. Canadian Journal of English Language Teaching, 3(3): 229 - 243. Also, [Online] Available at: http:
// viewFile/7236/5588  
Hosseini, S. M. H. (2012). Beyond the present methods and approaches to ELT/Education: The crucial need for a radical reform. Tehran: Jungle Publications.
Hosseini, S. M. H. (2015). Competitive Team-Based Learning: My Didactic Weapon', Germany: Scholars' Press.
Hosseini, S.M.H. (2015). http://www.
Jacobs, E., Rotenberg, L., Patrick, S., & Wheeler, E. (1996). Cooperative learning: context and  opportunities for acquiring academic English. TESOL Quarterly, 30 (2), 253-275.   
Jacobs, G. (1988). Cooperative goal structure: A way to improve group activities. ELT Journal, 42(2): 97–100.   
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1981). The integration of the handicapped into the regular classroom: Effects of cooperative and individualistic instruction Contemporary Educational Psychology, 6, 344-353.  
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning (Rev. ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.    
Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. A.  (1991). Active learning: Cooperative learning in the college classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company. 

Johnson, D., Johnson, R.& Holubec, E. (1998). Cooperation in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.   
Long, M. H. & Porter, P. A. (1985). Groupwork, inter language talk, and second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 207–228.
Momtaz, E. and Garner, M. (2010). Does collaborative learning improve EFL students’ reading comprehension? Journal of Linguistics and Language Teaching, 1(1), 15-36.  
Ning, H. (2011). Adapting cooperative learning in tertiary ELT. ELT Journal, 65(1), 60-70.  
Omer, N. & Attamimi, R.A. (2014).Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning in Enhancing Speaking Skills and Attitudes towards Learning English. International Journal of Linguistics, 6(4), 26-45.
Pattanpichet, F. (2011). The Effects of using collaborative learning to enhance students’ English speaking achievement, Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 8(11), 1-10.  
Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Suwantarathip, O., & Woolfolk, S. (2010). The impacts of cooperative learning on anxiety and proficiency in an EFL class. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7(11), 51-58.  
Talebi, F. & Sobhani, A. (2012). The impacts of cooperative learning on oral proficiency, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 3(3), 75-79.  
Woolfolk, A. (2007) Educational psychology (10th Ed.). New York: Pearson.  
Yager, S., Johnson, R. T., Johnson, D. W., & Snider, B. (1985). The effect of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences on positive and negative cross-handicap relationships. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 10, 127-138.