Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Payame Noor University and University of Rasht, Iran

2 Payame Noor University, Iran

Abstract

This research study aimed at examining the use of vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian male and female intermediate EFL learners and the relationship between gender and the use of these strategies at Shokouh Language Institue in Iran. 80 EFL learners who were at intermediate level participated in this study. This study used Kudo’s (1999) classification of vocabulary learning strategies including metacognitive and psycholinguistic strategies. Kudo’s (1999) likert-scale questionnaire has been used in this study. In order to analyze data and answer research questions, descriptive and inferential statistics via SPSS (21) used. The finding of the study revealed that the most frequently-used VLS by female group was “Use loan words” and by male group was “ Using a bilingual dictionary”. Both of these strategies were psycholinguistic strategy. The frequency mean for the psycholinguistic strategy use, metacognitive strategies as well as the overall frequency mean was slightly higher for the female learners. However there was no significant difference between Iranian male and female intermediate EFL learners in terms of the use of vocabulary learning strategies.

Keywords

Ahmed, M. O. (1989). Vocabulary learning strategies. In P. Meara, (Ed.) Beyond words (pp. 3-14). London: British Association for Applied Linguistics.In association with Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.
Bedell, D. & Oxford, R. L. (1996). Cross-cultural comparisons of language strategies in the People's Republic of China and other countries. In R.L.E. Oxford (Ed.), Language Learning Strategies Around the World: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. University of Hawaii, (pp. 47-60) Honolulu: HI.
Catalán, R. M. J. (2003). Sex differences in L2 vocabulary learning strategies. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13/1, 54-77.
Çelik, S., & Toptaş, V. (2010, May). Vocabulary learning strategy use of Turkish EFL learners. Paper presented at third international ELT conference: telling ELT tales out of school, Department of English Language Teaching, Faculty of Education, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus.
Cook, L.K., & Mayer, R. E. (1983). Reading strategies training for meaningful learning from prose. In M. Pressley, & J. Levin (Eds.). Cognitive strategies research, (pp. 14-27). New York: Springer Vearlag.
Ehrman, M. & Oxford, R. (1989).Effects of sex differences, career choice, and psychological type on adults’ language learning strategies. Modern Language Journal, 73(1), 1-13.
Fan, Y. M. (2003). Frequency of use, perceived usefulness, and actual usefulness of second language vocabulary strategies: A study of Hong Kong learners. The Modern Language Journal, 87(2), 222-241.
Green, J.M., & Oxford, R.L. (1995). A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency, and gender. TESOL Quarterly, 29(2), 261-297.
Gu, Y. (2003a). Vocabulary learning in a second language: Person, task, context, and strategies. TESL-EJ, 7/2, 1-25.
Gu, Y. & Johnson, R.K. (1996). Vocabulary learning strategies and language learning outcomes.

Jimenez, C. (2003). Sex differences in L2 vocabulary learning strategies. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13, 54–77.
Http://www.academia.edu/1317234/Does_Appl ying_Vocabulary_Learning_Strategies_Vary _Based_on_Gender_The_Case_of_Turkish_ EFL_Learners
Jimenez, C. (2003). Sex differences in L2 vocabulary learning strategies. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13, 54–77.
Kudo, Y. (1999). L2 vocabulary learning strategies. Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center.  University  of  Hawai’i,  Honolulu, USA. Retriev October 20, 2000, fromhttp: //www.lll.hawaii.edu/nflrc/networks/nw14/.
Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
O’Malley, M., Chamot., A., Stewner-Mananaraes,
G., Kupper, L., & Russo, R. (1985). Learning strategies used by beginning and intermediate ESL students. Language Learning, 35(1): 21-46.
O'Malley, J., & Chamot, A. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Newbury House.
Oxford, R.L. (1993). Style Analysis Survey (SAS). University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.
Oxford, R.L., & Burry-Stock, J. (1995). Assessing the use of language learning strategies worldwide with the ESL/EFL version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL). System 23 (1), 1-23.
Oxford, R., & Nyikos, M. (1989). Variables affecting choice of language learning strategies by university students. The Modern Language Journal, 79(3), 291-300.
Politzer, R. (1983). An exploratory study of self-reported language learning behaviours and their relation to achievement. Studies in Second Language Acquisition,6.1. 54-68.

Rasekh, Z.E. & Ranjbary, R. (2003). Metacognitive strategy training for vocabulary learning. TESL-EJ, 7/2, 1-15.
Reid, J.M. (1987). The learning style preferences of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 21 (1), 87-111.
Sarani, A., & Kafipour, R. (2008).The study of language learning strategies use by Turkish and Kurdish EFL university students. Language Forum, 34(2), 173-188.  
Scharle, A., & Szabo, A. (2000). Learner autonomy. A guide to developing learner responsibility. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Schmitt, N. (1997). Vocabulary learning strategies. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition and pedagogy (pp. 199-227). Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Sener, S. (2009). The relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Turkish EFL students. Retrieved May 30, 2010, from http://yadem.comu.edu.tr /3rdeltkonf/spkr_sabriye_sener.htm.
Stoffer, I. (1995). University foreign language students’  choice  of  vocabulary  learning strategies as related to individual difference variables. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama, Alabama.
Wharton, G. (2000). Language learning strategy use of bilingual foreign language learners in Singapore. Language Learning, 50, 203-243.
Wu, X., & Wang, Q. (1998). Idea strategies and English vocabulary memorizing. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 1.
Yongqi, G. (2002). Gender, academic major, and vocabulary learningstrategies of Chinese EFL learners. RELC Journal, 10, 33 – 35.
Zarafshan, M. (2002). Effects of attitude and motivation on the use of language learning strategies of Iranian EFL university students.  Unpublished  Master’s  Thesis. Shiraz Azad University. Iran.