Document Type: Original Article


Department of ELT, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran


This study intended to investigate the imposition of values and ideological patterns of particular societies affecting learners' identity as a result of globalization and linguistic imperialism in the internationally distributed textbooks which are developed to meet the English language needs of international learners and are broadly used in Islamic countries like Iran. It was important to work out whether violation of standards and ideological patterns of certain societies could be detected. For that reason, critical discourse analysis (CDA) with its theory and procedures, as developed by Fairclough (1989), used in conversations, illustrations and reading passages in Interchange, Four Corners, Top Notch and American English File series and three meaning dimensions– the textbooks content, the social relations of the characters in the textbooks, and their subject positions– were classified and analyzed statistically. Overall, the findings of this study represented that these ELT books are by some means unfair and inclined to signify a specific discourse type, that is, the Western culture discourse, ideological patterns, and consumer societies, which can impose the Western view and have different effects on students' identity in Islamic countries.


Aliakbari, M. (2003). Linguistic imperialism, linguistic democracy and English language teaching. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology and Universities in Asia. Chulalongkon University Press, Bangkok, Thailand.

Apple, M. W. (1982). Education and power. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Apple, M. W. (2001). Educating the ''right'' way:  Markets, standards, God, and inequity (2nd ed.). New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

Armstrong, D. (1998). Globalization and the social state, Review of International Studies, 24(4), 461–478.

Ascher, A., & Saslow, J. (2011). Top Notch 1A/1B. Pearson Longman.

Auerbach, E. (1995). The politics of ESL classrooms. In J. Tollefson (Ed.) Power and inequality in language education (pp. 95–113). Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress.

Bahrami, M. (2011). An evaluation of Top Notch intermediate textbooks (Unpublished master’s thesis), Qeshm International Division, Shiraz University, Iran.

Block, D., & Cameron, D. (Eds.). (2002). Globalization and language teaching. New York: Routledge.

Crystal, D. (1997). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. Harlow, Essex: Longman.

Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. New York: Longman.

Fairclough, N. (2001). Language and power (2nd ed.). London: Pearson Education.

Giddnens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Halliday, M. A. K. (1985). An introduction to functional grammar. London: Arnold.

Hodge, B., Kress, G., & Jones, G. (1979). The ideology of middle management. In R. Fowler, B. Hodge, G. Kress, and T. Trew (Eds.), Language and control (pp. 81-93). London: Routledge.

Kazemi, S. A., Asadi Aidinlou, N., Savaedi, S. Y., & Alaviniya, M. (2013). Subliminal culture, sexism, and hidden curriculum in the internationally distributed Interchange textbooks. Advances in Environmental Biology, 7(7), 1233-1243.

Kachru, Braj B. (1992). Models for non-native Englishes. In Kachru, B. (Ed.), The other tongue: English across cultures (pp.48-74). Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Keshavarz, M. H., & Akbari Malek, L. (2009). Critical discourse analysis of ELT textbooks. Iranian EFL Journal, 5, 6-19.

Litz, D. R. A. (2005). Textbook evaluation and ELT management: A South Korean case study. Asian EFL Journal.    Retrieved from thesis.pdf

McArthur, T. (1998). The English languages. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

McKay, S. L. (2002). Teaching English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ngugi, w. T. (1993). Moving the centre: The struggle for cultural freedoms. London: James Currey Ltd.

Oxenden, C., & Latham-Koenig, Ch. (2010). American English file. Oxford, NewYork: Oxford University Press.

Pennycook, A. (1995). English in the world and the world in English. In J. W. Tollefson (Ed.), Power and inequality in language education (pp. 34-58). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Phillipson, R. (2000). English in the new world order. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Richards, J. (2013). Interchange 1 (4th ed.).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J. C. & Bohlke, D. (2011).  Four corners 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ritzer, G. (1993). The McDonaldization of society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Sadker, D. & Sadker, M. (2001). Gender bias: From colonial America to today’s classrooms. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Sharifian, F. (2008).Globalization of English in world Englishes: An emerging variety among Persian speakers of English. In M. Saxena & T. Omoniyi (Eds.), Contending with globalization in world Englishes. (pp. 137-155) Critical Language and Literacy Studies: Tronto.

Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2000). Linguistic genocide in education – or worldwide diversity and human rights? Mahwah, NJ., London: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Taki, S. (2008). International and local curricula: The question of ideology. Language Teaching Research, 12(1), 127-142.

Tok, H. (2010). TEFL textbook evaluation: From teachers’ perspectives. Educational Research and Review, 5 (9), 508-517.

Thomas, L., & Wareing, S. (1999). Language, society and power. London: Routledge.

Ur, P. (1996). A course in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vellenga, H. (2004). Learning pragmatics from ESL and EFL textbooks: How likely? TESL-EJ, 8(2). Retrieved from http://www.teslej. org/wordpress/pastissues/volume8/ ej30/ej30a3/

Weber, R. (1990). Basic content analysis. SAGE Publications, INC.