Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 English Department,Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza, Iran

2 Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza, Iran

Abstract

This study aimed at investigating the effect of using Telegram stickers on EFL learners’ vocabulary learning. To this end, 60 Iranian intermediate EFL learners (30 males, 30 females) at Islamic Azad University, Shahreza Branch studying in the second semester of the academic year 2016-2017 were selected through the convenience sampling method. They were then assigned randomly to the experimental and control groups. Then, a pretest was administrated to measure the learners’ vocabulary knowledge in both groups. The experimental group took their lessons via Telegram while the control group experienced the conventional teaching techniques. After the intervention period, an approved post-test was administered to both groups in order to check the participants’ possible progress. The statistical analysis of the scores indicated that teaching vocabulary through Telegram stickers could lead to outstanding advantages for the learners. In other words, social networking had a positive impact on learning new vocabulary items among Iranian EFL learners. Findings have illuminative implications for language learners and teachers as well as materials developers.

Keywords

Ahlqvist, T., Back, A., Halonen, M., Heinonen, S. (2008). Social media roadmaps exploring
the futures triggered by social media, VTT Tiedotteita-Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus Research Notes 2454. 78 p. + app. 1 p. Retrieved from http://www.vtt.fi /inf/pdf/tiedotteet /2008/T2454.pdf.
Ashiyan, Z., & Salehi, H. (2016). Impact of WhatsApp on learning and retention of collocation knowledge among Iranian EFL learners. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7(5), 112-127. Doi: 10.7575/aiac.alls.v.7n.5p.112.
Baran, E. (2013). Connect, participate and learn: Transforming pedagogies in highereducation. Bulletin of the IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology,
15(1), 9-12.
Bartlett-Bragg, A. (2006). Reflections on pedagogy: reframing practice to foster informal
learning with social software. Retrieved from http://www.dream.sdu.dk/uploads/files/Anne%20Barlett-Brag.pdf
Beck, I.L., & McKeown, M.G. (2007). Increasing young low-income children’s oral
vocabulary repertoires through rich and focused instruction. Elementary School Journal, 107(3), 251–271.
Bouhnik, D., & Deshen, M. (2014). WhatsApp goes to school: Mobile instant messaging between teachers and students. Journal of Information Technology Education, 13, 217–
231. Retrieved from http://www.jite.org/documents /Vol13/JITEv13ResearchP217-231
Bouhnik0601.Pdf.
Brusnigham, M. & Folk, J.R. (2012). Combining contextual and morphemic cues is beneficial during incidental vocabulary acquisition: Semantic transparency in novel compound word processing. Reading Research Quarterly, 47(2), 172-190. DOI: 10.1002/RRQ.015
Calvo, R., Arbiol, A., & Iglesias, A. (2014). Are all Chats suitable for learning purposes? A
study of the required characteristics. Procedia Computer Science, 27, 251–260.
Castro Sánchez, J. J., & Alemán, E. C. (2011). Teachers’ opinion survey on the use of ICT tools to support attendance-based teaching. Journal Computers and Education, 56(3), 911-915.
Chan, T. W., Roschelle, J., Hsi, S., Kinshuk, Sharples, M., et al. (2006). One-to-one technology-enhanced learning: An opportunity for global research collaboration,
Research and Practice in Technology-Enhanced Learning, 1(1), 3-29.
Chowdhury, A., Breznik, G., Verdnik, K., & Prihavec, B. (2012). Customer identification and
authentication procedure for online internet payments using mobile phone. Google
Patents.
Diamond, L., & Gutloh L. (2006). Teaching vocabulary. Retrieved from
http://eltj.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/50/1/52.
Do digovic, M. (2005). Vocabulary profiling with electronic corpora: A case study in
computer assisted needs analysis. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(5), 443-455.
Donmus, V. (2010). The use of social networks in educational computer-game based foreign
language learning. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1497-1503.
Ebrahimi, S, Hajebrahimi, S, Nikfallah, A, Sari-Motlagh, & Shakiba, B. (2016) Lifelong
learning in practice: The age of discussion through social media. European Urology,
69(6), 1162-1163. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2016.01.046.
Edwards, E. C., Font, G., Baumann, J. F., & Boland, E. B. (2003). Unlocking word meanings:
Strategies and guidelines for teaching morphemic and contextual analysis. In J. F.
Baumann & E. J. Kame'enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice. (pp
159-178). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Flad, K. (2010). The influence of social networking participation on student academic
performance across gender lines effect of picture and annotation types. CALICO
Journal, 20(1), 33-58.
Garrett, N. (1991). Technology in the service of language learning: Trends and issues. The
Modern Language Journal, 75(1), 74–101.
Gay, G., M. Stefanone, M., Grace-Martin, & Hembrooke, H. (2001). The effects of wireless
computing in collaborative learning environments. International Journal of HumanComputer
Interaction, 13(2), 257-276.
Gorjian, B., Alipour, M., & Saffarian, R. (2012). The effect of multisensory techniques on
reading comprehension among pre-intermediate EFL learners: The case of gender.
Advances in Asian Social Science, 1(2), 192-196.
Grave, M. F. & WattsTaffe, S. (2008). For the love of words: Fostering word consciousness
in young readers. International Literacy Association, 62(3), 185-193.DOI: 10.1598/RT.62.3.1
Hamberger, E., (2014). Why Telegram has become the hottest messaging app in the world.
The VERGE. Retrieved from https://www.theverge.com /2014/2/25/5445864/telegrammessenger-hottest-app-in-the-world
Heidari Tabrizi, H., & Onvani, N. (2017). the impact of employing telegram app on Iranian
EFL beginners’ vocabulary teaching and learning. Applied Research on English
Language. DOI: 10.22108/ARE.2017.103310.1087
Hsu, L. (2013). English as a foreign language learner’s perception of mobile assisted language
learning: A cross national study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26(3), 197-
213.
Kabilan, M. K. (2010). Facebook: An online environment for learning of English in
institutions of higher education? Internet and Higher Education, 13(4), 179-187.
Kajornboon, A. B. (2013). The effect of using social networking assisted interaction between
peer and teacher in English language learning. FLLT Conference, 16, 611-619.
Kaplan, A., M., & Haenlein, M., (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and
opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53 (1), 58-68.
Keyton, J. (2011). Communication and organizational culture: A key to understanding work
experience. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kukulska-Hulme A., & Shield, L. (2008). An overview of mobile assisted language learning:
Can mobile devices support collaborative practice in speaking and listening? ReCALL, 20(3), 271-289.
Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2007). Mobile Useability in Educational Contexts: What have We
Learnt? International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(2), 1-16.
Kukulska-Hulme. A. (2009). Will mobile learning change language learning? ReCALL, 21(2),
157-165.
Lee, H. (2009). Internet-mediated video conferencing for the development of Intercultural
communication in second language (L2) education (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).
University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Lenhart, A. (2007). Teens and social media: The use of social media gains a greater foothold
in teen life as they embrace the conversational nature of interactive online media. PEW
Internet and American Life Project, 1615 L ST., NW – SUITE 700 WASHINGTON, D.C.
20036, 1-55.
Lennox, S. (2013). Interactive read-alouds–An avenue for enhancing children’s language for
thinking and understanding: A review of recent research. Early Childhood Education
Journal, 41(5), 381–389.
Lu, Z., Hou, L, & Huang, X., 2010. A research on a student-centered teaching model in an ICTbased English audio-video speaking class. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 6, 101-123.
Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). Communication: The process, barriers, and improving effectiveness.
Schooling Journal, 1, 1-11.
Marsh, D. (2012). Blended learning: Creating learning opportunities for language learners.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mashhadi Heidar, D., & Kaviani, M. (2016). The Social impact of Telegram as a social network on teaching English vocabulary among Iranian intermediate EFL learners
(Payam Noor Center). Journal of Sociological Studies of Youth, 7(23), 65-76.
Mazman, S. (2010). Modeling educational usage of Facebook. Computer & Education, 55,
444-453.
Motteram, G., & Sharma, P. (2009). Blended learning in a web 2.0 world. International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society, 7(2), 83–96.
Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Teaching vocabulary. Asian EFL Journal, 7(3), 47-54.
Nation, I.S.P. (2006). How large vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? The Canadian Modern Language Review, 63(1), 59-82.
Niyayesh, U. (2015). Number of Iranian using Telegram mobile app increases to 13 million. Trend News Agency. Azerbaijan: Baku. Sep 13.
Reid, S. (2002). The integration of ICT into classroom teaching. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 48, 30-46.
Salehi, H., & Salehi, Z. (2012a). Challenges for using ICT in education: Teachers’ insights. International Journal of E-Education, E-Business, E-Management and E-Learning,
2(1), 40-43.
Salehi, H., & Salehi, Z. (2012b). Integration of ICT in language teaching: Challenges and barriers. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning (IC4E, 2012), IPEDR (Vol. 27, pp. 215–
219).
Sekiguchi, S. (2012). Investigating the effects of Twitter on developing a social learning
environment to support Japanese EFL students’ self-regulated learning. Paper
presented at ICT for Language Learning. Retrieved from https://conference.pixelonline.net/conferences/ICT4LL2012/common/download/Paper_pdf/279-IBT56-FPSekiguchi-ICT2012.pdf
Siyanova, A., & Webb, S. A. (2016). Teaching Vocabulary in the EFL context. English
Language Teaching Today: Linking Theory and Practice, 2(1), 227-239.
Srinivas, R. (2010). ICT tools for ELT ppt presentation-author stream. Retrieved from
http://authorstream.com/Presenation/rangoo-372780-ict-tools-elt-teaching.English technology language–esl-education-ppt-power point/.
Stockwell, G. (2007). A review of technology choice for teaching language skills and areas in the CALL literature. ReCALL, 19(2), 105-120.
Vivienne, W. (2016). With Telegram, A reclusive social media star rises again. Fortune.
Available at http://fortune.com/telegram-pavel-durov-mobile-world-congress/
Walter, J.B. & D’Addario, K.P. (2001). The Impacts of Emoticons on Message Interpretation in Computer-Mediated Communication. Social Science Computer Review, 19(3), 324-
347. DOI: 10.1177/089443930101900307.
Yoshii, M. (2003). L1 and L2 glosses: Their effects on incidental vocabulary learning.
ReCALL, 19(2), 105–120.
Yoshii, M., & Flaitz, J. (2002). Second language incidental vocabulary retention: The effect
of picture and Annotation types. CALICO Journal, 20(1), 33-58.158 Yousefzadeh, M. (2012). Mobile-based learning vs. paper-based learning and collocation
words learning. Journal of Educational & Instructional Studies in the World, 2(3), 35-46.
Zhao, Z. (2004). EFL teaching and reform in China’s tertiary education. Journal of Language
Teaching and Research, 3(6), 1098-1105.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An
overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 1–37). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum