Document Type: Original Article

Authors

English Department, Faculty of Arts, Hebron University, Palestine

Abstract

The technology of the flipped classroom is an innovation that allows learners to maximize their participation, increase their motivation, and improve their critical thinking and communication skills. This study investigated the attitudes of English major students in Hebron University towards the flipped classroom during the second semester of the academic year 2017/2018. A qualitative and quantitative method was adopted as this study used both questionnaires and interviews. A total of 150 pre- service teachers enrolled in this study and responded to the questionnaire. Moreover, a total of 10 pre-service teachers enrolled in this study and responded to the interviews. A questionnaire was used to show the general attitudes of the students towards using flipped classroom. Interviews were administered to reveal the general attitudes of the students towards the difficulties and the solutions. Findings of the study reported that the flipped classroom promotes more learner autonomy and self-direction. Moreover, that the participants considered the flipped classroom exciting, motivating, and engaging. Finally, the researchers concluded with some recommendations for educators to include the flipped classroom technology to create better learning opportunities for their students and to achieve better learning outcomes.

Keywords

1. Introduction

Technology has become an indispensable part of educational process. Using technology in language classroom is understood as the phenomenon in which face-to-face learning and teaching experiences are combined with online tasks and activities. Many educators would agree thattechnology has vividly improvedtheteachingandlearningprocess. For example, Wells, De Lange, and Fieger (2008) have suggested that "technological advancements have significantly altered the ways educators teach and students learn" (p.28).

Flipping the classroom is a key pedagogical innovation that displays potential in reaching countless diverse learners in the classroom. By using technology, instructors will have more opportunities to individualize instruction as additional class time becomes possible (Bergmann & Sams, 2014). Engaging tasks that offer varied cognitive challenges on learners help develop their higher order thinking skills and encourage life-long learning. Such classroom environments offer learners with opportunities to work collaboratively to learning problems and engage in interactive activities that promote critical thinking skills and encourage social interaction.

Moreover, the flipped classroom is in line with constructivist and student-centered approaches to learning. There is a need to encourage student-centered learning that meets students' interests and motivate them to take responsibility upon their learning instead of just depending on traditional teaching/learning techniques (Johnson, 2013; Jones, 2007). Student-centered learning is strongly rooted in the constructivist learning theory that stresses the learner's crucial role in the process of meaning construction from new information and prior experience (Wright, 2011). Thus, students’ involved and improving students’ language performance material in a language learning contexts lies upon teachers.

 

1.1. What is Flipped Classroom?

The flipped classroom is a pedagogic teaching model that has attracted the attention of a lot of research studies over the last decade. According to Merrill (2015), the flipped classroom is ''a pedagogical model in which classwork and homework are reversed" (p.16). According to her, ''instruction delivery takes place outside of the classroom, most often via video obtained from Internet resources'' (p. 16). Harris, Harris, Reed, and Zelihic (2016) defined the flipped classroom as:

         a learning environment that provides students with a variety of means to study basic knowledge content as part of homework and preparation for class meetings; teachers then use class time more effectively for hands-on activities or other means of encouraging students to practice, apply and demonstrate mastery of the content learned from the pre-class requirements. In this manner, teachers and students are collaborative learners targeting topics, threshold concepts, and other areas of learner weakness as needed to ensure better understanding of the course content (p. 325).

According to Harris et al. (2016) "The flipped classroom strategy places the educational encumbrance upon the student; instructors become the experts who develop the talents of their students and eliminate the codependency'' (p. 331). Similarly, AlJaser (2017) defined the flipped classroom is a student-centered educational learning model that "aims at replacing the traditional lecture by active cooperative tasks using internet and computer technology to transmit a video lecture to be watched at home; and then students discuss it through some pair activities'' (p. 69). Bergmann and Sams (2014) clarify that in their early flipped classroom they focus on videos. However, they utilized various technology media in learning activities independently such as online resources and simulations, games, readings, and collaborative tools through blogs, discussion and forums.

Based on the above mentioned definitions, the flipped classroom has a reversed or an inverted setting of a traditional lecture as students’ access online resources outside the classroom in the first place, then they have inside classroom discussion (Lage, Platt, & Treglia, 2000). Several studies reported that learners appreciate the use of flipped classroom because it increases motivation, collaboration, performance, and achieves their learning outcomes (Davies, Dean, & Ball, 2013; Farrah, 2014; Elian & Hamaidi, 2018; Evseeva & Solozhenko, 2015; Mason, Shuman, Cook, 2013; O’Flaherty, Philips 2015; Sirakaya & Ozdemir 2018; Villanueva, 2016).

Using the flipped classroom as a learning tool is deeply rooted in several learning theories and concepts such as the interactionist theories, constructivist learning principle, and student-centered learning, and collaborative learning. It is a strategy of teaching that aims to improve students' motivation and independence. Several studies suggested that flipped classrooms contribute to encouraging and improving skills in the domains of application, analysis and evaluation which are all mental skills and processes not covered by the traditional curricula (Basal, 2015;  Davies, Dean, & Ball, 2013;  Evseeva & Solozhenko, 2015; Villanueva, 2016; Unakorn & Klongkratoke, 2015). Moreover, AlJaser, (2017) and Al-Zahrani, (2015) assert that using flipped classroom provides more chances for interaction and responsibility towards education. It also promotes students' creativity, especially with regard to fluency, flexibility and novelty.

University students depend on the traditional way of receiving and memorizing information without any responsibility in getting and applying it or seriously discussing its sources and reasons. Harris et al. (2016) clarify that "many traditional classroom settings create codependency; students do not know how to solve problems unless they ask the instructor" (p. 331). Moreover, the inappropriateness of traditional methods in correctly practicing the critical thinking, exploring subjects in a deeper manner, understanding the concepts through practical application and stimulating skills led to the need of transforming these methods to modern teaching strategies. Flipped classroom is considered one of the modern student-centered strategies.

The researchers felt the significance of applying the flipped classroom strategy to make teaching more exciting and to get the learner self-direction and responsibility for the learning process. Therefore, the study is an attempt to examine English students' attitudes towards using flipping classroom and to suggest some solutions for the problems caused by flipped classroom in the learning process?

 

2.Literature Review

This section aims to review the studies that have been conducted about using flipped classroom. Several studies discussed the importance of using flipped classroom in English language learning. The studies examine and clarify the benefits of using flipped classroom in language learning such as promoting more independent learners (AlJaser, 2017), reducing the amount of frustrating sessions (Johnson, 2013), promoting students’ creativity (Al-Zahrani, 2015; Song and Kapur, 2017), increasing students' participation (Basal, 2015), increasing students motivation (Davies, Dean, & Ball, 2013; Elian & Hamaidi, 2018; Villanueva, 2016; Sirakaya & Ozdemir 2018), increasing students' academic performance (Evseeva & Solozhenko, 2015), facilitating class discussion (Marlowe, 2012), and improving students’ communication skills (Unakorn & Klongkratoke, 2015).

Elian and Hamaidi (2018) conducted a study in Jordan to explore the effect of flipped classroom on the academic achievement in fourth grade science students in the Directorate of Private Education in Amman. The participants were 44 male and female students during the second semester of the academic year 2015-2016. The researchers used an achievement test and divided the students into two groups: control and experimental. The findings indicated that there were statistically significant differences in the means on the educational achievement test attributed to the teaching strategy, in favor of the experimental group.

Sirakaya and Ozdemir (2018) conducted a study on 66 students in "Scientific Research Methods" course in order to examine the effect of a flipped classroom model on students' academic achievement, self-directed learning readiness and motivation. They divided the participants into two groups; experimental and control. They found that there were significant differences between the two groups in terms of academic achievement, motivation and retention in favor of the experimental group.

Zheng, Chu, Wu, & Gou (2018) examined the use of an integrated pedagogical tool for knowledge learning that combines off-line and flipped classroom activities. The results revealed that the learners maintained superior learning outcomes and significantly improved their learning result of professional knowledge and enhanced their capabilities as learners.

AlJaser (2017) aimed to measure the effectiveness of using flipped classroom strategy in academic achievement and self-efficacy among female students of College of Education, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University (PNU), Saudi Arabia. She applied two tools in his study: Achievement Test and Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that utilizing flipped classroom is a productive tool that makes learning, teaching, and lecturing more exciting and interesting. It also encourages learners to be positive and have responsibility over their learning process.

Villanueva (2016) conducted a study in Hawaii to evaluate the effect of a flipped classroom model on the motivation of elementary school students. He concluded that flipping classroom allowed him to work with students individually or in small groups. So according to him, the individual need of the students were addressed while other students were engaged in viewing the videos and working on different tasks.

Evseeva and Solozhenko (2015) examined the usefulness of the flipped classroom in the process of English language teaching and learning of second year students studying at The National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University. They reported several benefits for the flipped classroom such as offering teachers the flexible timetable, and engaging the students in the learning process and increasing their academic performance. Moreover, they pointed out that the flipped classroom encourages collaboration among students due to joint projects and group work and increases students' responsibility for their own learning.

Al-Zahrani (2015) carried out a study to examine the influence of the flipped classroom on promoting of learners’ creative thinking at King Abd-ulaziz University in Saudi Arabia. He employed both a two-group quasi-experimental design and a survey questionnaire to assess the students’ views about the flipped classroom, its role in the increase of creativity and the difficulties students experienced. He concluded that that the flipped classroom may promote students’ creativity, especially with regard to fluency, flexibility and novelty.

Basal (2015) aimed to examine the attitude of English language teachers at a State University in Turkey towards flipped classrooms implementation into an English language class. A total of 47 first year pre- service teachers from three courses (Advanced Reading and Writing I, II) took part in his flipped classroom model. He concluded that that pre- service English teachers had positive perceptions towards the use of the flipped classroom as an integral part of face-to-face courses. Moreover, the participants indicated several benefits for the flipped classroom such as learning at one's own pace, advanced student preparation, overcoming the limitations of class time, and increasing participation.

Unakorn and Klongkratoke (2015) conducted a study to examine the effectiveness of using flipped classroom on 42 students. They reported that flipped classroom enabled students to have more efficient management for time in classroom and a better achievement in learning. Additionally, the flipped classroom provided students with more opportunities to communicate with each other and their teacher.

Davies, Dean, and Ball (2013) explored the benefits of flipping the classroom on college students. They utilized a pretest posttest quasi-experimental mixed methods design to examine the differences in student achievement due to the instructional approach being used. They found that the flipped classroom was effective and facilitated learning. Most of the students in the flipped classroom indicated their willingness to take another course as they found the experience to be more motivating.

Johnson (2013) examined students' perceptions of the flipped classroom environments. Both qualitative and quantitative research measures were utilized in the study. The results indicated that students were doing less homework which made them enjoy learning in the flipped classroom environment. Moreover, the students benefited from watching their lectures in condensed lesson videos.

Marlowe (2012) conducted a study to measure the impact of the flipped classroom on student achievement and student stress levels. The participants were 19 students. She found that that students held positive attitudes towards the new learning environment. She concluded that the flipped classroom model is an appropriate method for differentiation and for creating independent learners. According to her, the flipped classroom facilitates class discussion in an enjoyable way and provides a way for teacher to check that if students understood the concepts.

Based on the reviewed literature, it is noticed the flipped classroom facilitates class discussion, promotes more learner autonomy and self-direction. Furthermore, it enhances creativity and critical thinking, increases students' motivation and participation. Finally, it increases learners' academic performance, improves students’ collaborative and communication skills, and reduces the amount of frustrating sessions. With these themes in mind, the researchers in this study attempt to answer the following research questions:

  1. What are English students ' attitudes at Hebron University towards using flipping classroom?
  2. Are there significant differences in students’ attitudes towards the flipped classroom due to gender?
  3. What are the difficulties of using flipped classroom in the learning process?
  4. What are the solutions for the problems caused by flipped classroom in the learning process?   

3. Methodology

The researchers describe in this section the design of the study, the participants’ characteristics, the instruments, and procedure. Finally, they explain data analysis.

3.1. Design of the Study

This is a descriptive study. The data for this study was collected through a questionnaire and interviews with students.

 

3.2. Participants.

The study was conducted in 2017/2018 at the English Department at Hebron University with participants of 18-23 years old. A total of 150 pre-service teachers enrolled in the study and responded to the questionnaire. Within the participants 124 were female and 26 were male students. At the time of the study, 77 participants were junior and 73 were senior in the department. Moreover, a total of 10 pre-service teachers enrolled in the study and responded to the interviews. They had different academic background of English language and literature. Their native language is Arabic.

Table 1 presents the demographic data which includes gender and academic level.

 

Table 1.

Students' Demographic Data

Variables

Frequency

Percent

 

Gender

Male

26

17.3%

Female

124

82.7%

Total

150

100%

 

Years of study

Third year

77

51.3%

Fourth year

73

48.7%

Total

150

100%

 

 Table 1 shows that the majority of the respondents were females and that reflected the general population of Hebron University in Palestine. The dominating majority of the students 124 (82.7%) were females, 26 (17.3%) were males. Regarding their academic level, 77 (51.3%) students were in their third year, and the rest of the students 73 (48.7%) were in the fourth year.

 

3.3. Instruments

This study was conducted at the English Department at Hebron University in the second semester of the academic years 2017/2018. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, two research instruments were used for data collection: questionnaire and interviews (see Appendix A and B). The questionnaire was used to show the general attitudes of the students towards using flipped classroom. The questionnaire was developed by the researchers via using the literature review which was conducted to determine the benefits of using flipped classroom. After the literature review, a 10-item questionnaire convenient for the use of flipped classroom was developed by the researchers. The first section of the questionnaire was about the demographic data. To illustrate, gender and year of study were included in this section. The second section contained items about attitudes towards using flipped classroom. Likert scale was used in the questionnaire to indicate the degree of disagreement and agreement from 1-5 which were: strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree.

The interviews were administered to reveal the general attitudes of the students towards the benefits, difficulties and the solutions of the flipped classroom.

 

3.4.  Data Collection Procedure

To investigate their attitudes towards using flipped classroom, a 10-item questionnaire was distributed to 3rd - 4th students individually at the English Department at Hebron University, Palestine in the second semester of the Academic Year 2017- 2018. They were pleased to answer the questionnaire. The number of the questionnaires filled was 150. The questionnaire reliability was examined and the result showed that the overall Cronbach Alpha Coefficient of the questionnaire was (r =.73), indicating a good degree of internal consistency. This means that the questionnaire was a reliable instrument and acceptable for the purpose of the current research. The researchers examined the validity of the questionnaire against the extent to which its items reflected students’ attitudes towards the flipped classroom. The questionnaire was given to experts from the Faculty of Arts and based on their recommendations, the researchers added some items and deleted others.

In addition to the questionnaire, ten interviews were conducted at Hebron University during the second semester of the academic year 2017/2018.

 

3.5.  Data Analysis Procedure

This is a quantitative qualitative study. Quantitative data was analyzed statistically by using the SPSS program (Statistical Package for the Social Science) version 22 and descriptive analyses (frequency, percentage, means and standard deviation) were run. For the interview questions, content analysis was employed and reported qualitatively.

 

4.Results

This section provides the results obtained from analyzing students’ responses in the questionnaire. The first section of this elicitation technique reports the results of the demographic data. The second section reports the results of the second part of the questionnaire. Finally, the third section reports the results gained from the interviews with the students.

 

4.1.  Results of the Questionnaire

The students' questionnaire was used in order to know students' attitudes towards flipped classroom. In order to find the meanings of those means, correction key was calculated as follows.

 

 

The following section presents the results of the second section in the Questionnaire. It aims to answer the research questions of the current study.

Question One: What are English students ' attitudes at Hebron University towards using flipping classroom?

To answer this question, descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations) were calculated for the questionnaire items. Table 2 shows the calculated mean of items and their standard deviation appear for each item.

 

Table 2.

 Descriptive Statistics (Means and Standard Deviations)

No

Statement

N

Means

SDs

1

The flipped classroom supports students in becoming self-directed learners.

150

4.0

0.7

3

The flipped classroom helps students to ask questions and get immediate targeted answers to difficult concepts.

150

3.9

0.9

2

The flipped classroom allows students to have access to the lectures at any time easily.

150

3.9

1.0

7

The flipped classroom reduces the amount of frustrating sessions.

150

3.8

0.9

4

The flipped classroom gives students more opportunities to communicate with each other.

150

3.7

1.1

8

The flipped classroom allows students have more time for family, friends, play, and extra-curricular activities.

150

3.7

1.1

5

Teachers are available for more one-on-one interaction with students in a flipped classroom.

150

3.4

1.0

9

Students would rather watch a traditional teacher lead lesson than a lesson video.

150

3.2

1.0

6

Students would not recommend the flipped classroom to their friends.

150

3.0

1.0

10

The flipped classroom has not improved students' learning of English.

150

2.7

1.1

 

Table 2 shows that the students had positive attitudes towards using flipped classroom in the process of learning. The item that got the highest agreement is item number 1. The standard deviation in this item shows that the value is spread out from the mean. This means that most students agreed that the flipped classroom supports students in becoming self-directed learners. This was in line with the findings of (AlJaser, 2017; Strohmyer, 2016).

Other items that scored agreements were (3, 2, 7, 4, 8, 5). The standard deviations in these Items show that the values are spread out from the means. The flipped classroom reduces the amount of frustrating sessions as shown in item 7. This was in line with the study of Johnson (2013). The flipped classroom gives students more opportunities to communicate with each other as perceived in item 4. This was in line with the findings of (Unakorn & Klongkratoke, 2015; Marlowe, 2012).

Moreover, other items that scored neutral were (9, 6, 10). The standard deviations in these Items show that the values are spread out from the means. Item 9 shows that students would rather watch a traditional teacher lead lesson than a lesson video. Item 6 shows that students would not recommend the flipped classroom to their friends. Item 10 shows that the flipped classroom has not improved students' learning of English.

Question two: Are there significant differences in students’ attitudes towards the flipped classroom due to gender?

In order to examine the statistical significance of the students’attitudes towards the flipped classroom due to gender, a t-test was carried out.As seen in Table 3, there are no statistically significant differences in the students’attitudes towards the flipped classroom due to gender.

 

Table 3.

T-test for Equality of Means.

Dependent Variable

N

M

SD

T

d.f

Sig.

 

Gender

Male

26

3.44

.43834

-1.212

148

.448

Female

124

3.55

.39498

-1.132

   34.037

 

Table 3 shows that there were no significant differences among male and female students in their attitudes towards the flipped classroom. However, the mean scores show the female students had better attitudes. This is in agreement with other studies that reported no significant differences in the strategy used in relation to gender. For example. Farrah (2014) who found no significant differences among male and female students in their attitudes.

 

4.2. Results of the Interviews

The attitudes of the students towards using flipped classroom:

The researchers interviewed some students. As mentioned above, ten students were interviewed. They were asked the following questions:

A. What are the benefits of watching videos before coming to class on the achievement of the EFL students in Teaching English for Young Learners' course?

The interviewed students mentioned some benefits of watching videos before coming to class. The first advantage is that watching videos familiarize the students with the topic, vocabulary, and stream of teaching in the class. This will help the students be more independent and productive in many levels, leading to a more wide range of knowledge. Moreover, watching videos before coming to class create interactive environment inside the classroom. To illustrate, students were be able to act and interact with other and this enhanced team working and communication skills. Finally, they would shorten the time and these helped to exploit the time to complete the other tasks.

 

B. What differences, if any, do you notice between the roles of a teacher in a flipped classroom, compared the role of a teacher in a traditional classroom?

There were ten students who showed the differences between the role of a teacher in a flipped classroom and the role of a teacher in a traditional classroom. Most of the students pointed out that in a traditional classroom a teacher is supposed to start from the scratch in paving the way to the main topic, explaining, and concluding it. However, in a flipped classroom, the students are more aware of what will they be thought and capable of discussing and interacting comfortably. Moreover, a teacher's role in a flipped learning classroom is to become the facilitator of learning- to make sure that students are getting what they need. However, in a traditional classroom, the teacher should also regularly reflect on each of his/ her lesson and ask himself/ herself, did the students enjoy the lesson? How can I teach that topic better next time? Did I handle that situation well? The teacher should continue this process of self-analysis and reflect on his/ her teaching abilities so that he/ she can show progress within his/ her career.

Furthermore, some students stated that in the traditional classroom the teacher is the center of learning system and students only receive information .however, in the flipped classroom students are the center of learning system and the teacher only gives instructions to students. Finally, the teacher in the flipped classroom is a facilitator who sets up the content, maps out homework, and provides a welcoming learning space that students can explore in. On the other hand, in the traditional classroom, the role of the teacher is to teach his/ her students different subjects and different skills.

C. What are the difficulties of using flipped classroom in learning process?

The difficulties that were mentioned by students were similar. Some students stated that flipped classroom needs an equipped classroom with all the needed tools and technologies. The students need to obtain a device and a network to keep connected with the class. Another student said that the most important key to successful flipping is that students should be prepared for the class. In many cases, they may not study the materials and the flipped approach fails! Finally, some students did not familiarize themselves with this new learning approach and skipped the pre-class activities.

 

D. What are the solutions for the difficulties that the students face during using flipped classroom?

The students offered a number of suggestions for the difficulties and the problems they face. The first suggestion was that the government should give the students a free access to internet. Moreover, some students suggested that the teacher should encourage the students to watch the lectures before coming to the class. The teacher can also give positive feedback to those students who have clearly seen the video prior to class. Finally, the other students suggested that the teacher can give the students a training courses on how to use flipped classroom.

5.   Discussion

This research reviewed students' attitudes towards flipped classroom approach. The results of the questionnaire matched the results of the interviews that the researchers synthesized. First of all, the advantages that the students mentioned in the interviews were similar to the advantages the students mentioned in the questionnaire. For instance, most of the students held a positive opinion towards using flipped classroom. Additionally, the results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences in the attitudes of the students towards using flipped classroom due to gender and academic level. These findings were similar to the conclusion of some previous reviews of flipped classroom research.

In the present study, there is no evidence that flipped classroom approach negatively impact student's learning. At best, this instructional approach can help students perform significantly overall better than students in traditional classrooms. Therefore, the flipped classroom is beneficial to students and it should be encouraged.

The findings of this study reveal that using flipped classroom has solid advantages. This is in agreement with a number of studies. For example, Johnson (2013), Al Jaser (2017), Sirakaya and Ozdemir (2018) and Strohmyer (2016) assert that using flipped classroom in language learning provides positive ideas and benefits that motivate students to become self-directed learners. Basa (2015), Unakorn and Klongkratoke (2015) suggested that the flipped classroom are helpful for students to learn better and communicate with their colleagues in an enjoyable and convenient learning environment. Al-Zahrani (2015) emphasizes that effective learning takes place when flipped classroom promotes students' creativity. Johnson (2013) stresses that learning is most active when flipped classroom reduces the amount of frustrating sessions.

The results obtained from the quantitative data and qualitative data indicate that using flipped classroom increases students' motivation and improves students' learning of English. This is in line with Davies, Dean, and Ball (2013). They have found that flipped classroom motivates collaborative work. Likewise, Evseeva and Solozhenko (2015) found that flipped classroom improves students' academic performance. Similarly, Flumerfelt and Green (2013) reported that flipped classroom created more instructional time overall by providing students with a task they enjoyed and could control, deciding when and where to listen to the daily lectures. Finally, it is in agreement with Song and Kapur (2017), who suggested that the flipped classroom offers students opportunities to leverage their prior knowledge and the new knowledge under investigation to generate multiple methods for solving a problem.

 

6. Conclusion

In conclusion, as the Chinese proverb says, "Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn." This quote embodies the core of the flipped classroom concept. When properly implemented, flipped classroom environments are primarily a positive experience for both lecturers and students who learn to appreciate the increased engagement. In this study, the researchers investigate the students’ attitudes towards the use of flipped classroom in the English Department at Hebron University. As the study revealed, using flipped classroom is likely to present an additional valuable outcome in the process of learning and motivate learning environment. It’s evident from the results of questionnaire and interviews show that the majority of students have favorable views towards using flipped classroom for they were involve energetically with using flipped classroom. They take opportunities to assume their responsibilities to learn in a learner centered classroom in a collaborative and interactive manner with their peers and their instructors alike. The results showed that most of the students preferred flipped classroom which improves their communication skills and reduces the amount of frustrating sessions. Based on the results of the study, the researchers believe that using flipped classroom might have a noteworthy effect on the students’ academic progress. The flipped classroom strategy should be utilized in developing students’ self-efficacy.

The main purpose of this research paper was to investigate using the flipped classroom in the learning process. Universities and instructors may find the results of this paper to be very beneficial as it will help them enhance their understanding of using the flipped classroom in the learning process. Accordingly, it may help them shape their knowledge for an effective use of flipped classrooms. The researchers recommend that lecturers should provide an opportunity for students to ask questions and/or clarify information contained in course materials. They also should provide formative assessment opportunities for students to understand what they do and do not know because changing the rules will cause anxiety among many students who may themselves need to be re-educated on how one is successful in flipped classrooms.

Furthermore, the researchers recommend that lecturers should be careful not to burden students with too much off-loaded content. In addition, the researchers recommend that other researchers should do similar studies, and that they may benefit from it. Also, the researchers recommend that other researchers review this study as a secondary data in their future studies to develop the study and its results. Moreover, educators should incorporate technology into their teaching to achieve better learning outcomes. Educators should also include technology in their classroom to create better learning opportunities for their students.

 

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