Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of ELT, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran

2 Department of ELT, Khouzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran. Department of ELT, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.


This study investigated the effects of using sentence order techniques on learning adverbs (i.e., frequency, manner, time, and place) among Iranian pre-intermediate students. To perform this study, 30 pre-intermediate participants were non-randomly selected and divided into two equal groups of control and experimental. Then, they took a teacher-made pretest of grammar in order to determine how well they knew the adverbs of frequency, manner, time, and place before the treatment. The experimental group was taught the grammatical patterns of sentence order techniques like the use of form and functions of adverbs and their positions in the sentences. The control group received the traditional method of teaching adverbs including exercising of grammar, pattern practice, etc. Finally, the participants took the posttest. Independent and paired samples t-tests were used to compare the means of the pretest and the posttest in both groups. The findings revealed that the experimental group significantly improved in the posttest. Implications of the study suggest that using new technology, especially sentence order techniques, may enhance learners' learning regarding adverbs at the pre-intermediate level.


Andersen, S. (2014). Sentence types and functions. San Jose State University Writing Center. Retrieved June 26, 2016 from

Baleghizadeh, S. & Oladrostam, E. (2011). Teaching grammar for active use: A framework for        comparison of three instructional techniques. TEFLIN Journal, 22(1), 72-85.

Carter, R., Hughes, R., & McCarthy, M. (2000). Exploring grammar in context. Cambridge:        Cambridge UniversityPress.

Celce-Murcia, M. & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1999). The grammar book: An ESL/EFL teacher’s course (second edition). Boston, MA:Heinle & Heinle.

Cinque, G. (1999). Adverbs and functional heads. New York: Oxford University Press.

Collins, W. (2012).  Collins English dictionary .Complete & Unabridged Digital Edition, London: Harper Collins Publishers.

Doff, A. (2000). Teach English: A training course for teachers (14th Ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Farahani, A.K., & Sarkhosh, M. (2012). Do different textual enhancement formats have differential effects on the intake of English subjunctive mood? Theory and practice in Language Studies, 2(4), 688-698.


Folse, K.S. (2012). Clear grammar 2: Keys to grammar for English language learners. (2nd edition).  Michigan: University of MichiganPress/ELT.

Ghobadi, S., & Taki, S. (2018). Effects of telegram stickers on English vocabulary learning: Focus on Iranian EFL learners.  RELP, 6(1), 139-158.

Gholami Pasand, P., & Tahriri, A. (2017). Peer scaffolding in an EFL writing classroom: An investigation of writing accuracy and scaffolding behaviors. RELP, 5(2), 147-166.

Gill, N. S. (2010). Word order: Latin and English differences in word order. London: Longman.

Gnanaseelan, J. (2016).  The taxonomy of the functional and structural uses of adverbs in business letter writing in English. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 5(5), 39-48.

Hernandez, M.S. (2006). The position of adverbs in English: Trying to solve a major problem most language learners usually face. Filologia y Linguistica, 32(1), 271-285.

Hewings, M. (2005). Advanced grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners of English (2nd edition). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Izadi, M. & Rahimi, M. (2015). Word order of Persian and English: A processing-based analysis. Education Journal, 4(1), 37-43.

Kian, S. & Gorjian, B. (2018). Effects of input enhancement cues on EFL learners' intake of English grammar: The case of connectors. RELP, 6(1), 39-55.

Khomeijani Farahani, A. A., & Faryabi, F. (2017). The role of self-regulated learning capacities in Iranian EFL undergraduates’ argumentative writing task performance. RELP, 5(2): 203-222.

Kuningas, J. & Leino, J. (2006). Word orders and construction grammar. Sky Journal of Linguistics, 19, 301-309.

Maclin, A. (1996). Reference guide to English: A handbook of English as a second language. Washington, D.C.: Materials Branch, English Language Programs Division.

Gholami Pasand, P., & Tahriri, A. (2017). Peer scaffolding in an EFL writing classroom: An investigation of writing accuracy and scaffolding behaviors. RELP, 5(2), 147-166.

Marani, R., & Heidari Tabrizi, H. (2017). Professional interpreters’ notes in Persian-English consecutive interpreting on the choice of form and language.  RELP, 5(2), 133-146.

McCamley, M. & Millan, M. (2005). Scrambled sentences: Solutions for English Teaching. Retrieved May 1, 2017 from

Macedonia, M. (2005). Games and foreign language teaching. Support for Learning, 20(3), 135-140.

Murphy, R. (2015). English grammar in use (4th edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pérez-Paredes, P., & Díez-Bedmar, B. (2012). The use of intensifying adverbs in learner writing. In Y. Tono, Y. Kawaguchi, & M. Minegishi (Eds.), Developmental and cross linguistic perspectives in learner corpus research (pp.105-123). London: John Benjamins.

Raimes, A. (1983). Techniques in teaching writing. Oxford:  Oxford University Press.

Raimes, A. (2001). Grammar trouble spots: An editing guide for students. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

Ramsay, A.M., Ahmed, N., & Mirzaiean, V. (2005). Persian word-order is free but not (quite)          discontinuous. 5th International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP-05). Borovets, Bulgaria.

Richards, J.C. & Schmidt, R. (2010). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. New York:Pearson Education.

Rutledge, J. & Fitton, Z. (2015). Teaching ESL students' adverb position to develop rhetorical emphasis. Linguistics Portfolios, 4(12), 122-129.

Samanian, S., & Roohani, A. (2018). Effects of self-regulatory strategy development on EFL learners’ descriptive writing and reflective thinking. RELP, 6(1), 95-116.

Swan, M. (2006). Practical English usage (3rd edition) .Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tallerman, M. (2011).Understanding syntax (3rd edition).London: Hodder Education.

Ur, P. (1999). Grammar practice activities: A practical guide for teachers (12th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wallwork, A. (2011). English for writing research papers.Springer science & Business media, LLC.

Zhang, B. & Koller, T. (2015). Adverbial phrase placements in L1-Chinese ESL learners' writing. Linguistic Portfolios, 4(9), 100-107.

Zi-hong, Z. (2010). The syntactic positions of adverbs and the second language acquisition,

          Sino-US English Teaching, 7(9), 48-54.