Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 English Department. Islamic Azad University, Torbat Heydarieh Branch

2 English Department, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

Learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in an enjoyable and challenging environment can make an appropriate context for promoting language achievement. It seems textbooks play a pivotal role in this regard. This study aimed at examining the impact of the supplementary materials on learners' emotional stance and their perceptions of classroom activities (interest, challenge, joy, and choice). To do so, a three-phase study was designed:  in phase 1, to evaluate Prospect series (textbook taught in Iranian junior high schools) based on emotional factors, a questionnaire measuring the emotional side of the series was utilized. In the second phase, taking into account the obtained results of the first phase and according to Mortiboy’s (2005) guidelines for teaching with emotional intelligence, supplementary materials were designed. In the third phase, the designed tasks and activities were implemented in a class (experimental group).  The results of t-test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that the designed tasks had a positive and significant effect on learners' emotional facet, perceptions of class activity, and language achievement.

Keywords

1. Introduction

Learning a second and foreign language is a demanding and laborious task. Educational materials can facilitate and accelerate this sophisticated job. The term materials which refer to anything which is used by teachers or learners to expedite the learning of the language can range from books and dictionaries to videos, DVDs, emails, and etc. (Tomlinson, 2007).

Materials are not only a resource for learning and instruction, but also should teach students how to learn by having activities which may be related to different learning styles. Textbooks and also the supplementary materials are the determinants of the method of learning and teaching. This is the reason for heavy reliance of teachers and students on them. Materials development can be a field of study or a practical undertaking (Tomlinson, 2001). As a practical undertaking, it may refer to anything which is done by teachers or writers to provide an input for learning in order to stimulate a purposeful output. Supplementary materials should be able to help learners to feel more comfortable with textbooks by incorporating different activities. They should also help learners to be more at ease with tasks by relating them to their own culture. Learners may feel relaxed by materials which are trying to help them to learn rather than the materials always testing them. So, supplementary materials can compensate for weaknesses and snags in course books and cause students have a more positive perception towards their classes and their classroom activities.

Virtually, perception of the class activities can play a vital role in the process of learning and teaching. The perception of classroom environment can be defined as an open system of changeable factors that affect the effectiveness of student learning from the perspective of learners, teachers and staff (Appatova & Prats, 2008). According to Anderman and Midgly (1997), there are four variables for students' perception, including, interest, joy, challenge, and choice. This is clear that the classrooms in official settings in Iran could not make students adequately productive in using English language communicatively (Ghanizadeh, Razavi, & Hosseini, 2018). This might happen because of the context and restricted environment. Indeed, students are not interested in participating classroom activities, there is little enjoyment in the class, and there are not many challenging tasks to let students choose among them. These problems may refer to the students' perceptions toward the class (interest, challenge, joy, and choice). For addressing these problems, supplementary materials should be designed to promote students’ perceptions towards their classroom activities, enhance their sense of attachment to the class, and pave the way for learning. Having this kind of supplementary material for Iranian formal educating system needs different techniques to engage students emotionally and make them interested. In other words, supplementary materials should be among the tools teachers have in their toolkit to teach with emotional intelligence.

Therefore, it can be assumed that materials and supplementary materials are the center of instruction and have an important impact on what is happening in the classroom. While textbooks are essential elements in EFL classes, there has been little attention to how and why the materials and tasks are selected. Furthermore, current approaches about emotional intelligence and its effects on learning are other factors that should be taken into account in designing and supplementing materials. Based on the above contention, the present study aimed at investigating the Prospect series – the textbook taught in Iranian junior high schools. In particular, the study sough to design tasks and supplement Prospect with materials which enable teachers to teach with emotional intelligence so that not only they feel more attached to the class but also have more positive perceptions towards what they do in the classroom. 

 

2.  Literature Review

The term material refers to anything which is used by teachers or learners to facilitate the learning of the language. They can be of different types, including, (1) instructional which informs learners about the language, (2) experiential that provides exposure to the language in use, (3) elicitative which stimulates language use, and (4) exploratory which is used for facilitating discoveries about language use (Tomlinson, 2001). The needs and wants of the learners, administrators, and others who deal with the process of education should drive the materials. These needs can be best satisfied by localized projects which consult learners, teachers, and administrators before, during, and after developing the materials (Masuhara, 1998).

Reviewing the previous studies indicates there is no single view for the process of learning which can affect providing appropriate materials. In other words, there is no pre-determined precise theory for teaching which can formulate criteria of developing the materials. According to Tomlinson and Imbeau (2010), there are some basic principles of second language acquisition relevant to the development of materials. The first one is that materials should achieve impact; they should have a noticeable effect on learners to attract their interest, attention, and curiosity. The second factor for developing the materials is helping learners to feel at ease. If the student has less anxiety, better learning occurs. The next point that should be taken into account while developing the materials is exposing the learners to language in authentic use.

Empirical studies demonstrated the positive effects of well-developed and authentic materials on different aspects of language learning. For example, Dornyei (2002) demonstrated that using authentic materials can help students to reduce the disparity between real world events and classroom knowledge. Otte (2006) conducted a study to find the relationship between language proficiency and materials. The result showed there were positive and significant associations between using authentic materials and oral language proficiency. In this study, the role of materials in enhancing students’ perceptions of learning environment, emotional states, and language learning is explored.

Learning environment has been defined as everything that is happening in the classroom or department, faculty, or university (Ghanizadeh & Jahedizadeh, 2015). In fact, it refers to the location, cultures, and context that students learn in. This term encompasses the students' characteristics like how they interact with others, how they motivate, with the culture of class or educational system like how teachers can facilitate learning. According to Arisoy (2007), classroom environment has two aspects; the first one is the physical environment which refers to the material setting of the classroom such as furniture, lighting, spaces, desks, chairs that affects the safety, the comfort of students, and learning and personal development of students. The second one is the psychological environment refers to the social quality of the classroom as well as students’ perceptions and attitudes towards the classroom.

According to Anderman and Midgly (1997), there are four dimensions for students' perceptions of classroom activities: 1. interest, 2. joy, 3. challenge, 4. choice. In fact, classroom conceptualization plays an important role during the process of learning. One of the best ways for conceptualizing the classroom is having a plan for preventing problems from occurring. The other ways are having clear rules for the class, a well-organized environment, and good interaction with students (Doyle, 2006). According to Doyle, classrooms are multidimensional; they have students with different goals, tasks, and the pressure of time and actions could have multiple influences on students' learning. There has been empirical evidence demonstrating that perception of classroom may change according to the subject matter and materials (Myers & Fouts, 1992).

School climate has been associated with student behaviors and attitudes. Researchers have assumed that students' perceptions and experiences of school influences the development of their self-esteem, self-perception, and health behaviors. In turn, these issues affect the student's present and future health and well-being (Garralda, 1999). While schools play an important role in students' identity, it may be a risk factor for the development of students’ behavior. This risk is evident when examining students with negative perceptions of classroom activities. Students who do not like their school or the activities are those who fail academically or at the risk of unhealthy behavior and experience reduced quality of life. They like to find areas for rebelling against the authority of schools. Different research evaluated the effects of school perception on students' behavior. For example, Jahedizadeh, Ghanizadeh, and Ghonsooly (2016) explored EFL learners’ perceptions of classroom activities in relation to their demotivation, burnout, and achievement goals. They reported that student burnout negatively and significantly predicted perceptions of classroom activities. Moreover, Student perceptions of interest and joy positively and significantly influenced mastery goal orientations and language learning.

Another factor pertaining to this study is emotional intelligence (EI) has grown into the industry of testing, learning and teaching since about thirty years ago Bar-on (2000) viewed EI a collection of capabilities, competencies and non-cognitive skills that have an effect on a person's abilities to gain success in the face of environmental pressures. It means that EI is the ability for understanding emotions and how such emotions affect interpersonal relations. Bar-On (2000) identified five scales for emotional intelligence and self-motivation. The first one is intrapersonal. It is the ability to know one's emotion such as self-awareness and self-actualization. The second one is interpersonal which is managing relationship with others like understanding others' feeling or maintaining the relations. Next is adaptability; that is the ability to adjust to change. The ability to solve the problem is an example. The other one is stress management which is controlling the stress like managing one's strong emotions or resisting an impulse to act. The last but not least is general mood which refers to the ability to be optimistic and positive such as feeling satisfied with life and keeping positive attitudes toward the problems.

As sates earlier, the present paper ─ designed in in three phases ─ attempted to examine the Prospect series in the light of the emotional side of the book. The first phase of this study tries to analyze Prospect in order to find snags related to students' emotional factors and their perceptions of classroom activities. The main aim of the second phase is designing tasks enabling teachers to teach with emotional intelligence. The third phase is implementing these tasks in real classes to find their effectiveness through an experimental study. For this purpose, the following questions were posed:

  1. Is the designed questionnaire used to analyze students' emotional needs a valid and reliable tool?
  2. Is there any need to provide supplementary tasks for Prospect series in order to teach with emotional intelligence?
  3. Do the designed tasks have any significant impact on learners’ EQ?
  4. Do the designed tasks have any effect on students’ perceptions of classroom activities (joy, interest, challenge, and choice)?
  5. Do the designed tasks have any effect on students' language achievement?

 

3. Methodology

3.1. Design and Context of the Study

The present study was designed in three phases: in phase 1, to evaluate the Prospect series based on emotional factors, a questionnaire measuring the emotional side of the book was designed based on Bar-On’s EQ model (See appendix A). It was then validated and administered to EFL students to unlace their opinions about the book in the light of the emotional considerations associated with the book. In the second phase, in the light of the obtained results of the first phase, the book was supplemented with tasks and activities to realize ‘teaching with emotional intelligence’ through the materials. In the third phase, the designed tasks and activities were implemented in experimental group to examine the impact of these tasks on students’ emotional stance, their perceptions of classroom activities (interest, challenge, joy, and choice), and their language learning.  The context of the study was Nasr, Novin, Noavaran, and two branches of Imam Reza high schools in Mashhad.

 

3.2. Participants

To validate the designed questionnaire, it was administrated to a group of 187 EFL students in high schools (Nasr, Novin, Noavaran, and two branches of Imam Reza) of Mashhad. In the second phase, the participants of the present study comprised 140 students, 70 of whom were control group and the rest comprised experimental group in a high school (Imam Reza) in Mashhad. Their age varied from 14 to 16; they were Iranian boys from the grades of seventh, eighth, and ninth studying Prospect series (1, 2 and 3) in formal educational system of Iran. To meet the main requirement of experimental research, the test of Babel English Language Placement Test (BELPT) was utilized. Demographic background of the participants is presented in Table 1.

 

Table 1.

Demographic Information of the Participants

No of students

140 (70 control/ 70 experimental)

Gender

All boys

Native language

Persian

Schools

Nasr, Novin, Noavaran, and two branches of Imam Reza high schools

Academic year

2017

 

3.3. Instruments

3.3.1. Paper Version of Babel English Language Placement Tests (BELPT)         

The paper version of Babel English Language Placement Tests (BELPT) was utilized to determine language proficiency (See appendix C). It is closely based on the Nelson Quick Check Placement Tests. The testing cycle should require no more than 70 minutes of trainee time and does not require any specialist testers to administer it. The tests were in multiple-choice format and consisted of items measuring the recognition of correct responses to reading prompts, grammatical forms and lexical choices in context (Al-Andaluz, 2006, as cited in Sharifi, Ghanizadeh, & Jahedizadeh, 2017). The test has demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity indices (Sharifi, Ghanizadeh, & Jahedizadeh, 2017).

 

3.3.2. Students’ Perceptions of Classroom Activities Scale

To assess students' perceptions of classroom activities, the researcher used the translated version of the 'students’ perceptions of classroom activities' scale designed and validated by Gentry and Gable (2001) and translated to Persian and revalidated by Ghanizadeh and Jahedizadeh (2015). Validity evidence for construct interpretation was investigated through confirmatory factor analysis. A chi-square/df ratio (2.38) and the RMSEA (.062) as well as the GFI (. 78) were indicative of model fit. Furthermore, all items had accepted factor loadings. The Cronbach's alpha estimates for each perception ranged from. 71 to. 80 (interest = . 86, challenge= .73, choice= .71, joy= .79). The 'Students Perceptions of Classroom Activities' instrument contains 31 statements evaluating four dimensions (interest, challenge, choice, and joy). The scale measures the four dimensions via a 5-point Likert-type response format (never, seldom, sometimes, often, and always). The participants were provided with directions on how to complete the scale (See appendix B).

 

3.3.3. Bar-On Inspired Questionnaire for Measuring Students’ Emotional Attitudes towards Prospect

 Inspired by the Bar-On’s EI scale, a questionnaire entitled ‘Emotional Perception Scale for English Textbooks (EPSET)’ was designed.  Bar-on model has fourteen parts such as self-awareness, happiness, empathy and etc. According to the operational definitions of each factors, several statements were written for each and students responded via a 5-point Likert-type format (never, seldom, sometimes, often, and always). They were provided with directions on how to answer the questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to determine whether each item fits the corresponding factor.

 

3.4. Data Collection Procedure

 As stated earlier, this study was designed in three phases. In the first phase, we conducted a need analysis. It was a kind of triangulation analysis. The researcher primarily designed a questionnaire based upon Bar-on’s EQ model. Having administered the questionnaire to a group of high school students, the researcher ran a confirmatory analysis (CFA) to find the validity and the reliability of the designed questionnaire. Another part of this triangle was the colleagues’ view of the snags pertaining to the emotional side of the book. The last dimension was one of the researcher’s experience ─ as a high school teacher instructing Prospect ─ to find and analyze the emotional needs and wants of the learners. This questionnaire was administered in five high schools (Nasr, Novin, Noavaran, and two branches of Imam Reza) of Mashhad, Iran. Convenience sampling was used for collecting data and all the participants kindly accepted to participate in the current study.        For the interview section, ten English teachers were randomly selected from the above high schools to express their ideas about Prospect series and its capability in ‘teaching with emotional intelligence’. 

In the second phase of this study, the researchers designed tasks for every lesson of the series. As mentioned before, Prospect series comprise three books; Prospect one for Grade 7 has eight lessons, Prospect two for grade 8 has seven lessons, and Prospect three for grade 9 has six lessons. The designed tasks were based on Bar-on EQ model and Mortiboys' (2005) recommendation in his book ‘teaching with emotional intelligence’ for designing tasks pivoting around emotional intelligence.

As an example, according to Mortiboys (2005), to teach with emotional intelligence, tasks can ask learners to find examples from their own experience to provide evidence for using emotional intelligence. In one exercise, for instance, the students were asked to tell their partners what they did last Friday. Or they were asked to choose from a list what they do with internet.

Mortiboys (2005) assumed there are many differences in the way individuals learn. The way learners feel in a session can be influenced by the extent to which the dominant intelligences are catered for. For different kinds of intelligence, the variety of activities can prevent learners from feeling excluded. Based on this contention, different musical, visual, pictorial and problem solving tasks and games targeting different types of intelligences were designed.

In the third phase, there were two groups with seventy members in each one. The designed tasks were implemented in experimental groups for six months as the supplementary material. The term started in October 2016 and finished in March 2017. One hundred and forty students kindly participated in this study. Seventy of them were in the control group and others were in the experimental one. Due to administrative constrains, intact-groups design was implemented whereby already-formed groups were used. After each lesson, students were asked to do the tasks whether at home or in the class. The tasks were checked in the class by teachers or through pair work if needed. The Babel test as well the perception of classroom activities questionnaire and the EPSET were administered to the students of the two groups once at the beginning of the term as the pretest and once at the end of the term as the posttest.

 

3.5. Data Collection Analysis

To determine the validity of the questionnaire designed based on Bar-On’s EQ model, a confirmatory factor analysis using Lisrel 8.5 was employed. To ensure the reliability, Cronbach’s alpha was used. To ensure the homogeneity of the two groups regarding their language proficiency, an independent samples t-test using SPSS V 22 was used. To see whether the implemented tasks in experimental group resulted in significant differences in students’ perceptions of classroom activities (interest, challenge, joy, and choice), multi-level analysis of variance MANOVA was utilized. An independent samples t-test was run to examine the impact of designed tasks on emotional factors.

 

4. Results

4.1. Results of the First Phase

The first phase of the present study included an array of different steps to design and validate the Emotional Perception Scale for English Textbooks (EPSET). The questionnaire was designed based on the 14 factors of Bar-On EQ scale. The factors comprise: Emotional self-awareness, Assertiveness, Self -esteem, Self -actualization, Independence, Empathy, Interpersonal relationship, Social responsibility, Problem solving, Flexibility, Stress tolerance, Impulse control, Happiness, and Optimism. Based on the operational definition of each factor outlined in Bar-on EQ test manual, for each scale 2-3 items were designed, with the total number of 30 items.

To determine the content validity of the EPSET, a group of experts (two psychometricians, and three English educators) evaluated the quality of items in terms of clarity and comprehensiveness. Accommodating the experts' views resulted in more refined and comprehensible versions of the scales. The translated questionnaire was then administered to 187 EFL students.

To determine the validity of the questionnaires, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) utilizing the LISREL 8.50 statistical package were performed. A number of fit indices were examined to evaluate the model fit: the chi square/df ratio which should be lower than 2 or 3, the normed fit index (NFI) and the good fit index (GFI) with the cut value greater than .90, and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of about .06 or .08 (Schreiber, Amaury, Stage, Barlow, & King, 2006). The structural model is presented in Figure1. As indicated in Figure 1, the chi-square/df ratio (2.78), the RMSEA (.072), and GFI (.90) all reached the acceptable fit thresholds.

The indices on the lines indicate the standardized estimates and t-values, respectively. The first one is the standardized coefficient (β) which demonstrates the factor loading of each item with respect to the corresponding factor and presents an easily grasped picture of effect size. The closer the magnitude to 1.0, the higher the correlation and the greater the factor loading of the item is. The magnitude of lower than 0.30 is an indication of weak factor loading; in such cases the item must be revised or discarded. The second measure is the t-value (t); if t > 2 or t< -2, we call the result statistically significant. As the Figure demonstrates, all items had accepted factor loading. The reliability of the questionnaire estimated via Cronbach's alpha was found to be .702. 

The reliability indices of the factors are as follows: Emotional self-awareness (.60), Assertiveness (.59), Self-esteem (.61), Self –actualization (.58), Independence (.72) Empathy, Interpersonal relationship (.83), Social responsibility (.62), Problem solving (.58), Flexibility (.67), Stress tolerance (.67), Impulse control (.57), Happiness (.61), and Optimism (.57). So, it can be concluded that the EPTES had acceptable reliability and validity indices.

 

 

 

 

 

 

χ2= 138.09, df= 55, RMSEA=. 072, GFI=.90, NFI=.88, CFI=.88

 

Figure 1. The schematic representation of EPSET and its corresponding items

 

Having validated the scale, the researcher administered it to 187 secondary school students to evaluate their emotional perceptions of the Prospect. The results are presented in the following Table.

 

 

 

Table 2.

Mean Scores of EPSET and the Comprising Factors

No

Possible range

Mean

Factors

187

2-10

5

Emotional self-awareness

187

2-10

4

Assertiveness

187

3-15

5

Self esteem

187

3-15

5

Self-actualization

187

2-10

4

Independence

187

2-10

3

Empathy

187

2-10

3

Interpersonal relationship

187

2-10

3

Social responsibility

187

2-10

4

Problem solving

187

2-10

3

Flexibility

187

2-10

5

Stress tolerance

187

2-10

3

Impulse control

187

2-10

2

Happiness

187

2-10

2

Optimism

187

30-150

58

Total EQ

 

As indicated by the Table, the mean scores of each sub-factor the total EQ are quite low and far from the average. This clearly demonstrates the restriction of the book in enabling teachers to teach with emotional intelligence. This in turn necessitates designing supplementary EQ-based materials and paves the way for the next phase.   

 

4.2. Results of the Third Phase

4.2.1. Results of Pretest on EPET

To examine whether there is any significant difference between control and experimental group regarding their emotional perceptions regarding their English textbook (EPET), an independent samples t-test was run. Table 3 below summarizes the descriptive results of EPET in the two groups. As the Table shows, the mean scores of EPET across participants in control and experimental groups are slightly different: control (M=46.08, SD=2.43, experimental (M=45.22, SD=2.80). 

 

Table 3.

Descriptive Statistics of EPET in PreTest

 

Groups

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

EQ

Pre

1.00

70

46.08

2.436

.29

2.00

70

45.22

2.80

.33

 

To see whether this observed difference is statistically significant, an independent samples t-test was run. Table 4 presents the results of t-test run on EPET. As can be seen, there is not a statistically significant between the two groups regarding the degree of their EPET (t= .1.93, p=.56). In other words, the two groups are homogenous regarding their level of EPET prior to the study.

 

Table 4.

The Results of T-test on EPET in Pre-test

 

T

Df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error

Difference

EQ Pre

.12

138

.56

.85

.44

 

4.2.2. Results of Pretest on Perceptions of Classroom Activities

To ensure that the participants of the two groups were homogenous in the level of their Interest, Challenge, joy, and Choice in perceptions of class activity, descriptive statistics of each perception was first computed. Table 5 displays the descriptive statistics of the perceptions.

 

Table 5.

Descriptive Statistics of Pretest on Perceptions

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

IntPreControl

70

9.00

15.00

12.05

1.27

ChaPreControl

70

10.00

17.00

13.70

1.53

ChoPreControl

70

7.00

15.00

10.90

1.38

JoyPreControl

70

8.00

14.00

10.41

1.221

IntPreExperimental

70

9.00

17.00

12.37

1.41

ChaPreExperimental

70

11.00

20.00

13.85

1.59

ChoPreExperimental

70

7.00

14.00

10.62

1.40

JoyPreExperimental

70

8.00

14.00

10.48

1.43

IntPreExperimental

140

9.00

17.00

12.21

1.35

Valid N (listwise)

70

 

 

 

 

 

As the table indicates, there are some slight differences in the mean scores of the perceptions across control and experimental groups. To see if these slight differences are statistically significant, a one-way between-groups multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was run. Four dependent variables were generated: Interest, Challenge, Joy, and Choice in perception of class activity. The independent variable was group (control and experimental). Preliminary assumption testing was conducted to check for normality, linearity, univariate and multivariate outliers, homogeneity of variance covariance matrices, and multicollinearity, with no serious violations noted. The results of MANOVA presented in Table 6 revealed that was not a statistically significant difference between the two groups on the combined dependent variables:  (F=.85, p= .49, Wilks' Lambda=.97).

Table 6.

 

The Results of MANOVA on Perceptions of Classroom Activities

Effect

Value

F

Hypothesis

 df

Error df

Sig.

Partial Eta Squared

Wilks' Lambda

.97

.85b

4.00

135.00

.49

.025

a. Design: Intercept + Groups

b. Exact statistic

 

4.2.3. Results of Pretest on Language Proficiency

To investigate whether the two groups were homogenous regarding their proficiency level prior to the study, an independent samples t-test was run on the means of the two groups.

As the results of independent-samples t-test shows, there is not a statistically significant between the two groups regarding the degree of their proficiency (t= -.38, p=.71). In other words, the two groups are homogenous regarding their English proficiency level before the study.

 

Table 7.

Independent Samples T-Test Showing the Results of Pretest on English Proficiency

 

T

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

 
 

Pre-test

Proficiency

 

-.38

138

.71

-.35

1.04

 
             

 

4.2.4. Results of Posttest on EPET

To investigate the effect of treatment on students' EPET, the differences between the two groups on EQ scale were calculated in post-test.  The means of the both groups in the post-test were shown to be different. As can be seen in Table 8, the mean of the experimental groups (M= 134.60, SD= 2.55) is higher than that of control groups (M= 45.20, SD= 2.36).

 

Table 8.

Descriptive Statistics of EPET in Posttest

 

Groups

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

EQPost

1.00

70

45.20

2.36

.28

2.00

70

134.60

2.55

.30

 

To investigate whether this observed difference is statistically significant, an independent-samples t-test was run. As Table 9 shows, there is a statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups (t= -214.78, p =.00). In other words, it can be implied that experimental group gained higher scores in EQ and this is an indication of the efficiency of the treatment employed in experimental group in enhancing their EQ in learning.  The effect size calculated via Cohen’s d was found to be 37 which is a high magnitude according to Cohen index. In other words, it can be safely said that using supplementary materials in experimental group promoted students’ emotional stance and this demonstrates the realization of teaching with emotional intelligence. 

 

Table 9.

Independent – Samples t-Test for EPET in Posttest

 

T

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error

Difference

EQ Post

-214.88

138

.000

-89.40

.41

 

4.2.5. Results of Posttest on Perceptions of Classroom Activities

The following table (Table 10) presents the descriptive statistics of interest, challenge, joy, and choice in perception of class activity across control and experimental groups in posttest. As the Table reveals, the mean scores of all types of endearment are higher in experimental group.

 

Table 10.

Descriptive Statistics of Perceptions of Class Activities

 

Groups

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

IntPo

1.00 Control

12.32

1.48

70

2.00 Experimental

35.90

1.28

70

Total

24.11

11.90

140

ChaPo

1.00

13.95

1.47

70

2.00

40.35

1.41

70

Total

27.15

13.32

140

ChoPo

1.00

10.91

1.39

70

2.00

31.37

1.39

70

Total

21.14

10.35

140

JoyPo

1.00

11.10

1.54

70

2.00

31.28

1.30

70

Total

21.19

10.22

140

        

To see if these observed differences are significant statistically, a one-way between-groups multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was run. Preliminary assumption testing was conducted to check for normality, linearity, univariate and multivariate outliers, homogeneity of variance covariance matrices, and multicollinearity, with no serious violations noted. The results of MANOVA presented in Table 11 revealed that was a statistically significant difference between the two groups on the combined dependent variables (perception of class activity): (F=.7886.68, p= .000, Wilks' Lambda=.66). The effect size computed via partial eta squared was found to be .99 which is a quite high magnitude according to Cohen's F. This implies that about 99 percent of variance in students’ perception of class activity can be accounted for by the treatment utilized in experimental group.

Table 11.

The Results of MANOVA for Perception of Class Activities

Effect

Value

F

Hypothesis df

Error df

Sig.

Partial Eta Squared

 

Wilks' Lambda

.006

7886.68

3.00

136.00

.00

.99

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a. Design: Intercept + Groups

b. Exact statistic

 

The follow-up analysis represented in Table 12 demonstrated that this difference holds true across all four perceptions of class activity: Interest (F=721, p= .000, partial eta squared =.98), Challenge (F=11650.45, p= .000, partial eta squared =.98), Choice (F=7547.10, p= .000, partial eta squared =.98), and Joy (F=6964.42., p= .000, partial eta squared =.98).  

 

Table 12.

MANOVA Table Displaying the Results of Four Types of Perceptions across Control and Experimental Groups

Source

Dependent Variable

Type III Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Partial Eta Squared

 

IntPo

20121.10

1

20121.10

721.01

.00

.98

Groups

ChaPo

24393.60

1

24393.60

11650.45

.00

.98

ChoPo

14647.31

1

14647.31

7547.10

.00

.98

JoyPo

14261.20

1

14261.20

6964.42

.00

.98

a. R Squared = .988 (Adjusted R Squared = .988)

b. R Squared = .982 (Adjusted R Squared = .982)

c. R Squared = .981 (Adjusted R Squared = .980)

 

4.2.6. Results of Posttest on Language Achievement

To investigate the effect of the designed supplementary material on students’ language achievement, the two groups were examined in the post-test. First, the means of the both groups in the post-test were calculated. As can be seen in Table 13, the mean of the experimental groups is 17.58, and that of the control groups is 12.41.

Table 13.

Descriptive Statistics for Language Achievement in Posttest

 

Groups

N

Mean

 

 

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Language Achievement

1.00

70

12.41

.94

.11

2.00

70

17.58

1.37

.16

 

To investigate whether this difference is statistically significant, an independent-samples t-test was run (See Table 14). As the results of independent-samples t-test shows, there is a statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups (t= -25.94, p <.05) in their language learning. In other words, it can be said that designed supplementary material utilized in experimental group resulted in higher language achievement. The effect size calculated via Cohen’s d was found to be 4.25 which is a high magnitude according to Cohen index (above 0.80). In other words, it can be said that supplementary materials in experimental group highly promoted students’ perceptions to classroom activities.

 

Table 14.

Independent Samples T-test for Language Achievement in Posttest

 

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error

Difference

EQ Post

-25.94

138

.000

-5.17

.19

 

5. Discussion

As mentioned before, the first phase of the present study included a host of steps to design and validatethe Emotional Perception Scale for English Textbooks (EPSET). The result of CFA and reliability estimates demonstrated that (EPSET) had good model fit with the empirical data. It implies that the designed questionnaire enjoyed acceptable validity and reliability indices.

To analyze any need for providing supplementary tasks related to students’ EQ, the researchers utilized a triangulation model incorporating colleagues’ views, one of the researcher’s experience as a high school English teacher, and the designed questionnaire.  It was found that Prospect series did not have enough tasks to fulfill students' needs for their emotional side of learning and to actualize teaching with emotional intelligence. The tasks in both main book and workbook could not help students in sharing their ideas together, having plan for learning, understanding their own feelings and others' emotions, having the sense of satisfaction, and etc. According to researchers' experience, students usually conflicted with each other while they were doing a task in their group. It shows the tasks of the book could not help students to control themselves while they listened to different ideas and responses related to tasks. Also, they did not like to participate in group activities because they knew that they conflicted together at the end. It means the tasks could not optimize pair or group work and make the class more enjoyable for them. In analyzing interviews, three teachers assumed that students cannot control themselves while doing a task and they got frustrated easily. It reveals that the tasks could not promote students' ambiguity tolerance.

In the second phase, the researchers designed tasks, as supplementary materials to enhance students' perception of class activity and their emotional intelligence. The tasks were designed according to Mortiboys’ (2005) guidelines for teaching with emotional intelligence. In the third phase, the tasks were implemented in the experimental group. The results indicated that the designed tasks had a significant impact on students' perception of class activity, their emotional perceptions regarding their English textbook, as well as their language learning. In other words, students who worked with the designed tasks achieved higher score in their emotional perceptions of the book. The fact that teachers rely deeply on the textbook for instruction implies that textbook itself plays a vital role in the process of learning. Moreover, the textbooks may not fulfill all learners' needs in different perspectives. So the supplementary materials can help both teachers and learners to achieve their goals. Some researchers (e.g., Shah & Freedman, 2003) substantiated the effect of tasks on improving learners' emotional intelligence.

As stated earlier, the tasks were designed in the light of Mortiboy’s guidelines in his book “teaching with emotional intelligence”. The guidelines in turn were inspired by Bar-On’s model of EQ conceptualizing EI as  self-awareness, assertiveness, self-esteem, self-actualization, independence, empathy, interpersonal relationship, social responsibility, problem solving, flexibility, stress management, impulse control, happiness, and optimism. In line with this conceptualization, there were some activities in the designed supplementary materials that helped teachers and students to be aware of their relationship and feelings. There were also activities helping learners to be more flexible and resilient. They were based upon Transactional Analysis (TA). It is a theory of personality and social interaction which is used as a therapy (Stewart & Joines, 1987). The tasks asked learners to explain something for their classmates, use funny pictures, and listen to exciting. The tasks could also assist learners in solving the problems while negotiating with their classmates.

The result of the study also revealed that the tasks significantly promoted learners' perception of class activity at the end of the term. In preparing a favorable and interesting classroom atmosphere, a great deal of the energy should be exerted. The designed tasks help teachers to make the class learner-centered by asking learners to speak to each other, to come in front of the class and start telling about the pictures, weather, or etc, and to choose the tasks according to their preferences and styles. So, learners’ interest toward their classroom is improved by using the tasks let learners to be listened. Incorporating fun activities into the lesson can be useful for making the class more enjoyable. Another way for making the class more enjoyable is using funny pictures. Students’ main book (Prospect series) does not have attractive and eye-catching pictures; so the learners got bored easily in the class. There are some charming and funny pictures in the designed supplementary materials that made them more interesting. Classroom games is the other important way for keeping learners engaged and enjoyed. Students might spend a lot of time while they do not even feel like that they are learning something new. In line with this, some game-based tasks such as puzzles or role plays were designed.

Easy tasks may not produce the sense of challenge and competence because there is no improvement in the level of learners' skill. Providing difficult tasks will not result in success and sense of self-efficacy, as well. To this end, the designed tasks started with easy tasks and got challenging step by step. Moreover, some tasks can be completed at different levels. For example, some tasks ask students to guess the rest of listening or continue to write the story. It can equally be challenging for all students.

The results of the present study also indicated that the designed tasks can significantly enhance students' language achievement. Students who used the tasks during the process of learning got higher scores at the end of the term in comparison with their counterparts in the control group. Tasks play an important role in enabling students to communicate and use language. Authenticity of the tasks that ask learners to use examples from their real life is an important factor that can enhance language learning. In fact, authentic tasks can be developed through the interaction between students and external factors like teachers, peers, family, and etc. (Dornyei, 1998). Using different authentic tasks in the classroom can be a teaching strategy to make the class more communicative. It provides a purpose for classroom which goes beyond the practice of language; It can result in achieving effective language use (Richards & Rodgers, 2001). For this purpose, the researchers designed some tasks which asked learners to produce something related to their real life.

 

6. Conclusions

The result of the first phase of the study can be useful for educational systems to find the problems of Prospect series. Textbook designers should be aware of different emotional factors that affect students' learning. They should provide tasks and texts that respond to the students' needs and help them have positive attitudes toward the learning environment. The findings of the second phase can also help teachers to incorporate theory in practice. The designed tasks can be used as a supplement to Prospect series to ameliorate them with more interesting, challenging, and enjoyable tasks. In fact, the tasks are a tool in the hand of teachers to make the class more challenging and interesting and promote learners’ emotional intelligence. Learners have different preferences and perceptions, and it is not possible to make the designed tasks interesting for all; but teachers can provide opportunity for learners to choose what they want to do or how they want to do, individually or in group work. This study highlighted the facilitative role of supplementary tasks in the classroom. Teachers should analyze the class needs and wants of the learners and provide variety of tasks that help learners to achieve their goals.

The efficiency of the designed tasks in this study were in the light of learners' emotional intelligence and their perception of class activities. Other equally important psychological factors, such as efficacy, willingness to communicate, anxiety, and motivation can be studied. Furthermore, learners ' critical thinking or their metacognitive ability should be examined in future research.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix A

Emotional Perception Scale for English Textbooks (EPSET)

 

کاملاً موافق

موافق

نظری ندارم

مخالف

کاملاً مخالف

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا نسبت به عواطفی که دارم هوشیار شوم.

1

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا برنامة مشخصی برای یادگیری زبان داشته باشم.

2

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا بتوانم تمرین‌ها را به‌طور مستقل و بدون بهره‌گیری از کمک دیگران انجام دهم.

3

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا به راحتی افکارخود را با دیگران ( یا در جمع) مطرح کنم.

4

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا خیلی‌خوب احساسات دیگران را درک کنم.

5

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا برای حل مشکلات با برنامه‌ریزی و دقت عمل کنم.

6

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا به توانایی‌های خودم پی‌ببرم.

7

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا با دیگران به راحتی همکاری کنم.

8

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا از یادگیری زبان لذت ببرم.

9

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا به آسانی با موقعیت‌های جدید سازگار شوم.

10

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا اکثر مواقع به خودم اطمینان پیدا کنم.

11

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا  به احساسات، عواطف و نظرات دیگران توجه کنم.

12

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا در موقعیت‌های دشوار، آرامش خودم را حفظ کنم.

13

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا از شخصیت خودم راضی باشم.

14

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا  به دیگران کمک کنم.

15

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا با دیگران روابط خوبی داشته باشم.

16

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا نسبت به حل مشکلات، جدی باشم و به راه‌حل‌های مختلف فکر کنم.

17

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا با توجه به ضعف‌ها و قوت‌هایم، احساس خوبی از خودم داشته باشم.

18

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا حین فعالیت‌ها، به عقاید دیگران حتی اگر مخالف نظر من باشند، احترام بگذارم.

19

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می کند تا از کار گروهی لذت ببرم.

20

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا انگیزه داشته باشم جزو بهترین افراد کلاس باشم.

21

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا احساس شادی داشته باشم.

22

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا نسبت به رعایت نوبت و قانون (در حین انجام فعالیت‌های گروهی) توجه کنم.

23

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا بتوانم تمرین‌ها را به تنهایی انجام دهم.

24

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا عادت‌های یادگیری قبلی‌ام را ترک کنم.

25

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا بدون عصبی شدن زیاد از عهدة تمرین‌های چالش‌برانگیز برآیم.

26

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا به راحتی حرف زدن خودم را در حین انجام فعالیت‌های گروهی، قطع کنم.

27

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا نسبت به انجام تمرین‌ها و فعالیت‌های گروهی خوشبین باشم.

28

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا نسبت به عواطفی که دارم هوشیار شوم.

29

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب حاضر کمک می‌کند تا برنامة مشخصی برای یادگیری زبان داشته باشم.

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix B

Learners' Perception of Classroom Activities Questionnaire

 

همیشه

معمولاً

گاهی اوقات

به ندرت

هرگز

فعالیت

 

حیطه

 

 

 

 

 

به کارهایی که در کلاسم انجام می‌دهم علاقه‌مندم.

1

علاقه

 

 

 

 

 

من در کلاسم فرصت این را دارم تا کارهایی انجام دهم که به انجام آن‌ها علاقه دارم.

2

 

 

 

 

 

آنچه در کلاسم انجام می‌دهم به من ایده‌های جالبی می‌دهد.

3

 

 

 

 

 

به موضوعاتی که در کلاسم مطالعه می‌کنم علاقه‌مندم.

4

 

 

 

 

 

استاد مرا در فعالیت‌های یادگیری مورد علاقه‌ام مشارکت می‌دهد.

5

 

 

 

 

 

آنچه در کلاسم یاد می‌گیرم برایم جالب است.

6

 

 

 

 

 

به آنچه در کلاسم انجام می‌دهم علاقه‌مندم.

7

 

 

 

 

 

کلاسم به من کمک کرده تا زمینه‌های علاقه‌مندی خود را کشف کنم.

8

 

 

 

 

 

فعالیت‌هایی که در کلاس انجام می‌دهم چالش‌برانگیز است.

1

چالش

 

 

 

 

 

در کلاسم باید به این فکر کنم که چگونه می‌شود مشکلی را حل کرد.

2

 

 

 

 

 

کتاب‌ها و وسایل کمک آموزشی در کلاسم چالش‌برانگیز است.

3

 

 

 

 

 

من خودم را با امتحان‌کردن چیزهای جدید به چالش می‌کشم.

4

 

 

 

 

 

کار من می‌تواند چالش‌برانگیز باشد.

5

 

 

 

 

 

به نظرم کاری که در این کلاس انجام می‌دهم سخت است.

6

 

 

 

 

 

من به چالش کشیده می‌شوم تا در کلاس بهترین عملکرد را از خود نشان دهم.

7

 

 

 

 

 

آنچه در کلاس انجام می‌دهم متناسب با توانایی‌هایم است.

8

 

 

 

 

 

این کلاس برایم دشوار است.

9

 

 

 

 

 

اجازه دارم انتخاب کنم که در گروه کار کنم.

1

انتخاب

 

 

 

 

 

اجازه دارم انتخاب کنم که به صورت فردی کار کنم.

2

 

 

 

 

 

وقتی قرار است گروهی کار کنیم اجازه دارم همگروهی‌هایم را خودم انتخاب کنم.

3

 

 

 

 

 

استاد به من اجازه می‌دهد تا پروژه‌هایم را خودم انتخاب کنم.

4

 

 

 

 

 

وقتی کارهای زیادی برای انجام دادن وجود دارد اجازه دارم از بینشان آن‌هایی را انتخاب کنم که برایم مناسب‌تر است.

5

 

 

 

 

 

من اجازه دارم انتخاب کنم چه منبعی (مثلا کتاب) در کلاس کار شود.

6

 

 

 

 

 

اجازه دارم برای مطالبی که روی آن کار کرده‌ام مخاطب انتخاب کنم.

7

 

 

 

 

 

برای رفتن به سر کلاس بسیار مشتاق هستم.

1

لذت

 

 

 

 

 

از بودن در کلاسم لذت می‌برم.

2

 

 

 

 

 

استادم یادگیری را لذت‌بخش می‌کند.

3

 

 

 

 

 

آنچه را در کلاسم انجام می‌دهم دوست دارم.

4

 

 

 

 

 

کار کردن در یک کلاس را دوست دارم.

5

 

 

 

 

 

فعالیت‌هایی که در کلاسم انجام می‌دهم برایم لذت‌بخش است.

6

 

 

 

 

 

پروژه‌هایی را  که در کلاسم روی آن‌ها کار می‌کنم دوست دارم.

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix C

Sample items of the Babel Test

 

Gender:                                           Age:                                                  Grade:

 

1. Mohammed and Khaleel __________________doctors.

a. there                        b. they are                        c. are                            d. is

 

2. What _______________on Thursday?

 a. Abdullah usually does                      b. usually does Abdullah

c. does Abdullah usually do                 d. does Abdullah usually

 

3. A _______________works in a garage.

a. journalist               b. nurse                            c. mechanic               d. pilot

 

4 I go home _________________3 o’clock.

a. on                          b. at                                c. in                             d. to

 

5. “Are the boys’ bicycles in the garage?”
“No there ______________in the garage.

a. isn’t nothing              b. isn’t something               c. is anything                   d. ‘s nothing

 

6. A: “How’s Ali’s sister?” B: ………….

a. “She’s good.”             b. “That’s she.”              c. “This is her.”              d. “She’s happy.”

 

7. “I missed the bus home last night.”
“So ____________________.”

a. I did                    b. I have                     c. did I                         d. have I

 

8. I enjoyed the meal very much. Would you mind giving me the ___________ for it?

a. prescription         b. recipe                     c. menu                       d. receipt

 

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