Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Literature, Humanities, and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 TEFL Department, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch.


This study aimed to describe the development and validation process of a listening questionnaire designed to assess strategic competence in listening comprehension. The 34-item Cognitive and Metacognitive Listening Strategies Questionnaire (CMLSQ) was administered to a relatively large sample (N=397) of L2 learners. The results of the 370 completed questionnaires were subjected to exploratory factor analysis to identify the underlying structure of the questionnaire, and to a confirmatory factor analysis to examine the validity of the model as a good fit for the data. Based on the results of exploratory factor analysis, a three-factor model underlying metacognitive strategies and a five-factor model underlying cognitive strategies were hypothesized. These models were then evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis using AMOS 18. The results indicated that the current models and their parameters well fit the data gathered from the questionnaires.


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