Document Type: Review Article


Department of English, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Ibn Zohr University


This paper aimed to explore the ways in which three Moroccan ELT textbooks currently used in second year Baccalaureate public high schools represented gender. It also aimed to identify the extent to which these textbooks succeeded in avoiding instances of biased and stereotypical gender representations of female and male figures. The study was conducted based on the theoretical framework of the Standards-Based Approach. It adopted content analysis as the main instrument for data collection and analysis that combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques. The findings indicated that these textbooks contain instances of biased gender representations regarding frequency of appearance, visibility, space, firstness and occupations attributed to female and male characters in texts, dialogues, exercises and images. The paper concluded with a set of implications suggesting ways in which gender inequalities could be avoided in future Moroccan ELT textbooks.


Agnaou, F. (2004). Gender, literacy and empowerment in Morocco. London: Routledge.

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (1996). Standards for foreign language learning: preparing for the 21st century. Alexandria: Author.

Amini, M. & Birjandi, P. (2012). Gender bias in the Iranian high school EFL textbooks. English Language Teaching, 5(2), 134-147.

Arikan, A. (2005). Age, gender and social class in ELT textbooks: A critical study. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 28, 29-38.

Benatabou, D. (2010). Gender imbalances in Moroccan EFL textbooks: From ‘Survival of The Fittest’ to ‘Survival of All’ presented at the International Conference on Media, Culture and Education November 23-25, 2010. Meknes: Faculty of Arts and Humanities.

Bradley, J. (1993). Methodological issues and practices in qualitative research. Library Quarterly, 63(4), 431-449.

Cisar, S. H. (2000). Standards-based textbook evaluation guide. Bloomington: Indiana University.

Cunningsworth, A. (1995). Choosing your coursebook. Oxford: Macmillan Education.

Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N.E. (2009). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: Mcgraw-Hill.

Ghorbani, L. (2009). An investigation of the manifestation of sexism in EFL/ESL textbooks. Eric, 3(1), 93-115. Retrieved from

Hammani, M., Ahssen, S. & Tansaoui, L. (2007). Ticket 2 English students’ book. Casablanca: D.I.O. El Hadita.

Hassim, M., Blibil, M., & Rasmy, A. (2007). Gateway to English 2. Rabat: Nadia Edition.

Huang, C. H. (2009). Gender roles in junior high school English textbooks. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi County.

Jaafari, M. (2018). Gender representation in the Moroccan EFL textbook discourse.  In V. Deliyanni, A. Tereškinas, K. Bekkaoui, S. Reddad, & Hayat Naciri (Eds). Gender, identities and education. Beni-Mellal: Sultan Molay Sliman University.

Jibreel, I. (2015). Evaluating Blue Skies 6 with reference to Yemeni students. Arab World English Journal, 6(2), 372 –384.

Kazemi, S., Aidinlou, N., Savaedi S. & Alaviniya, M. (2013). Subliminal culture, sexism and hidden curriculum in the internationally distributed interchange textbooks. Australian Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(9), 182-191.

Kim, H. (2012). Social and cultural issues in some EFL textbooks in Korea. Hawaii Pacific University TESOL Working Paper Series, 10, 30-39.

Kordjazi, Z. (2012). Images matter: A semiological content analysis of gender positioning in contemporary English-learning software applications. Novitas-Royal Research on Youth and Language, 6(1), 59-80.

Krippendorff, K. (2013) Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Laabidi, H. (2014). Textbook evaluation Visa to the world as case study: Evaluating textbook from the teachers’ perspective. Lambert Academic Publishing, Retrieved from

Litz, D. (2005). Textbook evaluation and EFL management: A South Korean case study. Asian EFL Journal, 48,1-53.

Lu, C. L. & Lin, Y. J. (2014). The Eastern Asian research on gender bias in secondary school textbooks. International Journal of English Language Education, 2(2), 197-208.

McDonough, J. & Shaw, C. (2003). Materials and methods in ELT. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ministry of National Education. (2007). English language guidelines for secondary schools: Common core, first year, and second year Baccalaureate.  Rabat: Author.

Najib, M., & El Haddad, E. (2007). Insights into English 2. Rabat: Al Massar Edition

Otlowski, M. B. (2003). Ethnic diversity and gender bias in EFL textbooks. Asian EFL Journal, 5(2).

Su, Y. T. (2008). A study of the gender ideology of English textbooks in junior high school. Unpublished Master’s thesis, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua County.

Van Leeuwen, T. & Jewitt, C. (2006). Handbook of visual analysis. London: Sage Publications.

Yaghoubi-Notash, M & Nariman-Jahan, R. (2012). Genders representation in focus: The case for marketized EFL syllabus. Educational Research, 3(1), 80-86.

Yilmaz, E. (2012). Gender representation in ELT textbooks a comparative study. Turkey: Middle East technical university.

Zhu, C. Q. (2011). Research on the sex roles in project English. Journal of Fujian Institute of Education, 1, 83-86.