Document Type : NTLL Conference: Original Article

Authors

English Department, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

Abstract

This article aimed at investigating the effect of teaching vocabulary via textbooks and social media on the creativity level of Iranian EFL learners. To this purpose, 40 Iranian EFL learners at the intermediate level be involved in a pretest-posttest study after taking the (OQP) test. They were between 13 to 18 years old. The creativity questionnaire was administered as the pretest and posttest. All the participants were at the same level of proficiency and both groups (experimental & control) contained male and female learners. Each group involved 20 participants. Both groups received an explanation about the purpose and an explanation of how they should act. The experimental group was taught vocabulary items via Telegram while the control group learned the new words through traditional methods. After taking the posttest and analyzing the data, the results showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in terms of creativity. Thus, it can be concluded that the training program could have positive effects on the experimental group for creativity improvement and the traditional way was not effective. Finally, it was revealed that gender had no significant effect in using social media to improve creativity. Social media include various creative activities that could help learners inside and outside the classroom effectively. 

Keywords

1. Introduction

These days utilizing information, communication technologies, and the internet has attracted language learners and teachers (Zhang et al., 2011). As Ralston (2012) stated, technology is a part and parcel of today’s life that has affected language learning. Today’s young generation is named the digital generation because modern types of equipment and internet access are the two most common items for them (Van der Beemt et al., 2010). Birch et al. (2007) and Wilson and Stacey (2004) agree that social media and mobile applications focus on learner-centered learning in which users can share their knowledge, skills, and experiences that learn on social media or even in their traditional classes.

The history of vocabulary knowledge has mostly centered on the teaching of vocabularies as apart or combination items (Howatt, 2004; Kelly, 1969; Sánchez, 1997, 2009, Schmitt, 2000). Stahl (2005), explained the vocabulary concept in this sentence that the information about a word and the meaning of that assumed as a vocabulary that you might teach or learn (Stahl, 2005). Acquiring vocabulary items is the most vital section for studying textbooks (Laflamme,1997). The existence of vocabulary lists has been one of the elements in the educational system for long years.

 In other words, vocabularies are one of the skeletons of the linguistic system and language fluency (Laufer& Goldstein, 2004). Wilkins (2001) wrote that “. . . while without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed” (pp. 111–112). Teaching words and phrases help learners understand and start communicating with others. Vocabulary knowledge enables students to master the language in order to communicate appropriately.

Textbooks are the most accessible tools for teaching vocabulary items to learners.  The textbook is a collection of information that could simply explain learning items. It is considered that textbook is reachable and tangible for teachers and learners (Schwab, 2017). As declared by Zohrabi, et al. (2014), textbooks are one of the pillars in education that may improve or deject students according to their contents. They are a type of help and encouragement for both educators and students. They can enhance students with a kind of regularity in their teaching. Textbooks have a vital function in every learning skill and sub-skill and they could aid instructors with their responsibilities (Azizfar, 2009; Evans & John, 1998). In Richards' view (2001), textbooks are a fundamental element in most language materials. In some conditions, they assist as a support for much of the language input students receives and the language practice that happens in the class. They may improve the foundation for the content of the teaching items, to appropriate skills taught and the types of language practice the learners be involved in. In other cases, the textbook may assist mainly to add information to the teacher's education.

For learners, the textbook may provide the main connection source that they have with the language besides input presented by the teacher. Nowadays, learning a second language engages with different online media like Telegram, WhatsApp, etc. As Schwab (2017), mentioned at the present time, the progressing technologies in education occur gradually. Thus, it is necessary to improve knowledge, arrange, and provide them with all the most modern technologies to increase their level in the machine age.

Social media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that promote the creativity for information and sharing ideas via virtual communities and networks (Kietzmann et al., 2011).  Presently, students are digital learners and continuously use social media to communicate with each other (Jones & Shao, 2011). Gumport and Chun (1999) have claimed that the aim of using social media in the educational system is to increase the rank of creativity in education processes. Creativity is a collection of skills that needs to create ideas that are both novel and beneficial (Sternberg, 2011). Creativity in education is an act that is annotative and helpful and boosts learner growth connected to the improvement of original thoughts and actions. It is an obvious fact that creativity causes learning practically (Runco, 2007). It is widely accepted to be more creative because, the learners appreciate new ideas (Pugliese, 2000).

            These days progressing, the technology is tangible in the educational system.  Kumar and Lightner (2007) stated today’s learners must be used recent facilities and materials and be completely included in the learning system. Fortunately, Iran receives recent technologies, but not in the education field. Lack of free and fast internet and blocking some of the websites and social media cause low proficiency of students and teachers. Some of the people in Iran think social media are just for hobby and it is not suitable for teaching.

            EFL learners and teachers; however, face serious problems regarding these aspects of learning. Creativity is another factor that affects education and learning. By creative thinking, the level of learners, improves positively. This research attempted to clarify whether learning via textbooks is more creative or by social media and by using which of the instruments their creativity would improve and students' knowledge promote, too.

 

2.Literature Review

2.1. Textbook and Creativity

The traditional way of learning and teaching believed very much in using a prescribed textbook as a tool for sending knowledge. Textbook plays a significant role in the conventional classroom-centered learning environment. By developing an e-learning environment and learning resources from the Internet, the role of the textbook might have changed or needs to be reviewed. However, quick and simple bite-sized learning using information nuggets to deliver specific knowledge via social media (Gutierrez, 2014; Omer, 2015) gradually replaces slow-paced comprehensive learning using textbooks with rich content.

Summer (2011) stated that textbooks still have the main role in student-centered classes today, and describes how the textbook can work as a promoting tool for both teachers and students. She further expanded how a textbook is a source for well-structured texts and exercises and provides teachers and students with a functional framework for discussions and homework (Gilje, 2016). Certainly, there are some new ideas and thoughts in discussions.

As Craft (2002) pointed that one of the main factors of creativity is argument and possibility thinking and it has been used at the school in technology-based practices to persuade students to act innovatively.

 

2.2. Social Media and Creativity

In latest years, ICT modifies people's life, work, and even study (Brynjolfsson & Hitt, 2000; Kinzer & Leu, 1997). As a result, education has upgraded from a traditional system with onsite classrooms and textbooks to online learning with more flexible materials for learning courses and in other places except for classrooms in unlimited time rather than typical times for onsite classes (Briz-Ponce et al., 2017; Heflin et al., 2017).

As social media is more applicable in today's technological world, the technologies that come with it enhance learning, increase learning requests for learning, and boost flexible timeless delivery, spaceless, and others. The request for innovation and invention, creativity, collaboration, and competitiveness are extremely essential for success in the interactive collaboration age of today (Suswati et al., 2019).

Social media gave the ability to share files, documents, songs, videos, real-time conversations, and many others (Pempek et al., 2013). These features cause that users connect directly to each other and do some discovery activities. Discovery activities create creativity for users. They can do independent research activities, or involve in various thinking training of students in learning process skills. Students can encourage developing knowledge in an interesting and diverse range of getting information (Cheng, 2011).

 Because of the enhancing of technology and the rise of the internet, the increase in accessibility of information has brought the possibility that the face-to-face learning environment will decrease due to some shortcomings. Some universities, institutions, and researchers have created digital-based education environments social networking, and have performed performances that only guide with online learning and study the effects of the environment learning (Driscoll, 2002; Graham et al., 2014; Osguthorpe& Graham, 2003; Picciano et al., 2013; Singh, 2003).

These online applications advance the creativity and motivation of users. Motivation, which is one of the affective components, seems like the main determinant in the success and the quality of learning for students (Dede & Yaman, 2008; Freedman, 1997; Kuyperet al., 2000; Lee & Brophy, 1996; Martin, 2001; Wolters, 1999). Social Media could play an important role for students to operate their learning according to their self-directed ability with the authority to choose their venue, time, content as well as the direction of their study (Jamaludin, 2000; Rosenberg, 2001; Shea-Schultz & Fogarty, 2002). Besides, motivation and creative thinking allow users to face new ideas, solve their technological problems, and keep flexibility, therefore, that they can cope with the advantages, opportunities, technologies, and changes that are parts of their learning process (Mumford & Gustafson, 1988).

1) Does teaching vocabulary via textbooks versus social media have any significant effect on the creativity level of Iranian male EFL learners?

            2) Does teaching vocabulary via textbooks versus social media have any significant effect on the creativity level of Iranian female EFL learners?

3) Is there any significant difference between the creativity level of Iranian male and female EFL learners regarding the impact of teaching vocabulary via textbooks versus social media?

 

  1. Methodology

3.1. Design and Context of the Study

            This study enjoyed a quantitative design with a quasi-experimental research method using pretest treatment posttest framework. The problem in assigning students into groups in an equal manner in educational environments led the researcher to select the quasi-experimental design in which accessible groups can be accorded over exact variables and equal assignments can be made over these groups (Gay et al., 2005). There is one control group and one experimental group. The participants were randomly assigned into the groups, and the researcher just tested one effect at a time. The researcher applied the treatment on the experimental groups to recognize the impact of teaching vocabulary via textbook and social media on the creativity level of Iranian EFL learners. Telegram as a common social media was used in teaching the participants of the experimental group while the textbook was used with the control group participants. The dependent variable is the creativity level of male and female learners and the independent variable is teaching vocabulary via textbooks versus social media.

 

3.2. Participants

Everyone who takes part in this research was a native speaker of Persian. They were EFL learners of intermediate level and were chosen from adolescents. The adolescents’ group was between 13 to 18 years old. To select homogeneous participants, the OQPT test was run, and based on the results, 40 English learners with a homogeneous level of proficiency were selected and then appointed to two groups of experimental (n=20) and control (n=20). The type of sampling was non-random sampling.

 

3.3. Instruments

3.3.1. Creativity Questionnaire

This questionnaire evaluates principles and plans for going about being creative. In this study, Kumar and Holman's Global Measure of creativity and ability was administered. Creativity Alpha reliability for this scale was found to be 0.76. The validity of this questionnaire was asserted by three experts. This questionnaire contained 50 items. For this study, 20 of them were needed. So, three experts selected 20 questions that were more appropriate. The first one was a supervisor for this research. The other two were the managers of two language institutes from which the participants were selected. All had MA and Ph.D. in language teaching and were experienced in publishing similar studies.

 

3.3.2. Placement Test

The Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT) evaluates a test taker’s ability to communicate in the English language. It gives teachers the information they require to realize a person’s language level. By using this test, learners can focus more on using the information it presents, and less on the time-consuming process of administering the test and marking it. The first part includes40questions, the second part includes 20 questions. Multiple choice questions and cloze test format are utilized in this test.

 

3.3.3. Oxford Word Skills (Intermediate) Textbook

            That is written by Ruth Cairns and Stuart Redman and published in Oxford University Press (2008). The participants were at an intermediate level so a textbook suitable for their level was chosen.

 

3.3.4. Telegram Application

Telegram is a software program that prompts messages and sends images and recorded voices freely. It is a platform that is recognized around the world these years fast. Due to cloud-based capacity, users could download an enormous amount of data. It is accepted among students in Iran because it is installed on mobiles easily and contains a large of amount educational channels.

 

3.4. Data Collection Procedure

First, the OQPT test was given to participants. OQPT test was conducted to homogenize the members. According to this test, those who scored 26-32 in the test were selected as intermediate participants. The whole test consists of 50 questions. Then, the students were assigned randomly to two groups of experimental (used Telegram) and control group (used textbook). In the next step, a creativity questionnaire was given to them as the pre-test.

Moreover, 20 participants were involved in each group. In the first session, the Telegram group obtained a summary description of the aim of the study. Then, the learners were requested to set up the application on their tablets or smartphones. In the next stage, the researcher made a telegram group and joined students, and explain to them the manner of utilizing this group for the aim of the study.

The second group received the researcher's description of the goal of the study. The selected book was identified to them and they were asked to prepare it for the next session. To gather the required data for the research, the same vocabulary lists for both groups were selected from that book. These vocabulary files involved new additional items of each course. Every word entry included the meaning or definition beside synonyms, antonyms, description, and instances (both textual and pictorial when needed). They, then, debated about the new items and attached some extra information with their teacher and other participants in the group. This encouraged students to be more creative. Dictionaries also could help them. Both groups were involved in the treatment during one semester that lasted for 18 sessions. Through varied activities and practices, the instructor found out which group used creativity during learning vocabulary and improved their vocabulary size. As a posttest, the creativity questionnaire was given to two groups again and the results were compared with those of the pretest.

 

3.5. Data Analysis Procedure

After collecting the required data, they were embedded into SPSS, and to answer the first and second research questions, a paired-samples t-test was used. To answer the third research question, an independent-samples t-test was used.

 

  1. Results

The following table on the other hand showed the descriptive statistics related to the performance of the textbook group on both pretest and posttest. The mean score, minimum, and maximum scores along with the standard deviations are presented.

 

Table 1

Descriptive Statistics for the Textbook Group's Performance Before and After the Treatment

                                         Descriptive Statistics

 

N      Range   Minimum  Maximum       Mean          Std. Deviation

Text

book Pretest

20

7.00

1.00

8.00

4.6000

1.93037

Text

book Posttest

20

11.00

1.00

12.00

6.5500

3.51650

Valid N (list wise)

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the table illustrates, the textbook group mean scores in the pretest and posttest are 4.6 and 6.5 respectively. The performance of the textbook group demonstrates a minor improvement in terms of their mean score from pretest to posttest. This is also an indication of the traditional treatment. They received during their teaching. As compared to the social media group, the textbook group performance has not considerably improved from pretest to posttest.

In order to a find whether the difference in terms of the performance of the groups from pretest to post-test is significant or not, the paired sample T-test was performed and the data is demonstrated in the following table. The descriptive statistics are illustrated in Table and the inferential statistics in Table.

 

Table 2

Descriptive Statistics of the Paired Sample T-test

                        Paired Samples Statistics   

 

Mean                  N             Std. Deviation        Std. Error Mean

Pair1

Social Media  pretest

7.1500

20

1.92696

.43088

Social Media Posttest

12.1500

20

2.10950

.47170

Pair 2

Textbook Pretest

4.6000

20

1.93037

.43164

Textbook Posttest

6.5500

20

3.51650

.78631

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             

As the table shows, the two groups performed differently in their pretest and posttest but with different extents. To find whether the diversity is significant or not, the following table depicts the inferential statistics for the paired sample T-test.

             

 Table 3

Inferential Statistics for the Paired Sample T-test

           Paired Samples Test

 

Paired Differences

T               df            Sig.(2-tailed)

95% Confidence Interval

Of the Difference

Upper

Pair 1

Social Media  pretest Social Media Posttest

-4.00429

-10.510

19

.000

Pair 2

Textbook Pretest- Textbook Posttest

-.73075

-3.347

19

.009

 

            As it is evident in the table, the difference between the performance of social media group is significant .000 (p<.05). This shows that the participants in the social media groups significantly improve in terms of their performance from the pretest to the posttest. While the social media group performed significantly differently, the difference of the textbook group from pretest to posttest in their performance is not significant .009 (p>.05).

The final step in addressing the second research question is finding the extent of difference between the performance of the two groups (social media and textbook). The following table shows the descriptive statistics between the two groups in their posttests. After they sat for the posttest and answered the questionnaire. The following table summarizes their mean scores and the standard deviations.

 

Table 4

Mean Scores and the Standard Deviations of Two Groups

                  Group Statistics

 

Groups               N        Mean            Std. Deviation    Std. Error Mean

Post

Test

social media

220

12.1500

2.10950

.47170

 

Textbook

 

20

 

6.5500

 

3.51650

 

.78631

 

            The table illustrates that the mean score of the social group doubles the mean of the textbook group (12.15 vs. 6.5). As it is evident from the table, the social media group outperformed the textbook group in terms of their performance in the posttest. To find whether this difference is significant or not, the Independent Sample T-test is performed. The following table illustrates the data.

 

Table 5

Independent Sample T-test

 

                        Independent Samples Test

 

 

Levene's Test          t-test for Equality of Means

for Equality                             

of Variances

 

F

sig.

Dt

df

sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

 

lower

upper

Post

test

Equal variances assumes

4.950

032

.107

8

.000

5.60000

.91695

.74374

.45626

Equal variances

not assumes

 

 

6.107

1.107

.000

5.60000

..91695

.73014

.46986

                       

 

 

            Following what the table illustrates, there was a significant difference between groups at the p-value of .000 (P<.005). The findings indicated that the two groups performed differently in their posttest results and the higher mean score in favor of the social media group are indicative of the impact of treatment on their better performance in the questionnaire and creative potential. Comparing means of the two groups also presented that the social group outperformed the textbook groups on the post-test as well.The following table illustrates the descriptive statistics related to the differences between male and female participants in the two groups; social media and textbook.

 

 

Table 6

                              Group Statistics

 

groups

    N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

Social MediaPosttest

female

10

11.6000

2.63312

.83267

male

10

12.7000

1.33749

.42295

Text

book Posttest

female

10

6.7000

4.08384

1.29142

male

110

6.4000

3.06232

.96839

 Descriptive Statistics About the Differences Between Male and Female Participants in the Two Groups; Social Media and Textbook

             

 

            As the table shows, the mean score of the females in both of the two groups is higher than that of the males. This is an indication of the better performance of the females in both groups irrespective of their treatment. In order to see whether the difference between the females and the males in terms of their performance is significant or not, the Independent Sample T-test was run and the results are presented in the following table.

 

Table 7

Independent Sample T-test Performance of the Females and Males in Both Groups

                                      Independent Samples Test

 

Leve;sTestt-test for Equality of Means

for Equality

of Variances

 

F

Sig.

T

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

social Media Pot

test

Equal variances assumed

.761

.114

1.178

18

.254

-1.10000

.93393

-3.06211

.86211

Equal variances not assumes

 

 

1.178

3.354

.259

-1.10000

.93393

3.11220

.91220

Text

book Post

test

Equal variances assumed

.654

.215

.186

18

.855

.30000

1.61417

-3.09125

.69125

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

.186

6.690

.855

.30000

.61417

-3.11043

3.71043

           

 

            As the table demonstrates, the difference between the performance of the two groups is not significant P-value (0.254, 0.259) > 0.05. This point shows that gender did not have a concluding role in the performance of the two groups.

 

 

  1. Discussion

This research aimed to inquire the effect of teaching vocabulary via textbook and social media on the creativity level of learners. After analyzing the data through descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, the results explained that the experimental group outperformed the control group in creativity. Thus, it can be concluded that the training program according to Telegram could have positive effects on the experimental group for creativity improvement.

The main research hypothesis states that teaching vocabulary via textbooks versus social media does not have any significant effect on the creativity level of Iranian male EFL learners. The finding of the study showed that there were not any meaningful differences between male or female learners. By this conclusion, the first research hypothesis was rejected.

Another research hypothesis was teaching vocabulary via textbooks versus social media does not have any significant effect on the creativity level of Iranian female EFL learners. As mentioned above, there are not any significant differences between male and female in learning new lexical items by using social media. Thus, this hypothesis was not acceptable.

Ahmed (2015) obtained the same result as the present study. He stated that people use directly Online Social Networks for educational purposes.  Many organizations and people have taken this chance to utilize Online Social Networks on English language learning. The study concentrates on the diversity in use between males and females learners. The results revealed the equivalent between both gender participants to access to online social networks and perceived them similarly advantageous for their language skills. The results not only supported the positive opinion of online social networks as having valid aptitude for learning new language, but they also demonstrated that members utilized them to find out about other cultures, such as the American and British culture. Teaching vocabulary via textbooks versus social media does not have any significant difference between the creativity level of Iranian male and female EFL learners. This was the next research hypothesis that was acceptable. According to the creativity questionnaire, male and female did this process equally. Both genders faced with the same material and quality in the learning process.

The outcomes of the present research are in line with the results of the study conducted by HeidariTabrizi, Onvani (2018). That study aimed at investigating the effect of Telegram, as an accessible social network, on learning L2 vocabulary by Iranian EFL beginners. To compare the scores gained from vocabularies taught through Telegram and the scores of the textbook taught lexical items to increase the outcome that learning words and phrases through the social media were highly efficient with the traditional method. According to the questionnaire, participants had effective opinions to utilize social networks for learning a second language outside the class and they assumed that these helpful materials sped up learning action.

Finally, the last research hypothesis was there is no significant difference between the creativity level of Iranian male and female EFL learners regarding the impact of teaching vocabulary via textbooks versus social media, which is rejected. Because the results of post-test showed that there is an obvious diversity between the experimental and control groups. The creativity of the experimental group was increased after the treatment.

Appendices

   OQP test

            The test is included 50 questions. The test administrator should read the instructions aloud and make sure that students know where and how to record their answers (for instance, whether to mark their answers on the question paper or to use the Student Answer Sheet). The test is divided into two parts: Part 1 (Questions 1- 40) – All students Part (Questions 41 – 60) – start this part only if you finished part 1 without problems Time: 30 - 45 minutes Students are awarded one point for each correct answer, according to the Answer Key provided.

 Quick Placement Test

Part 1

Question 1 – 5

 Where can you see these notices?

 For questions 1 to 5, mark one letter A, B or C on your Answer Sheet.

C

B

A

 

1.      YOU CAN LOOK, BUT DON'T TOUCH THE PICTURES

 

 

         

  

 

         

 

         

 

 C► in a museum

 

B► in a cinema

    

A► in an office

C

B

A

 

2. PLEASE GIVE THE RIGHT MONEY TO THE DRIVER

 

         

         

         

C► in a cinema

B► on a bus

A► in a bank

C

B

A

 

3.NO PARKING PLEASE

 

         

         

         

C► on a table

B► on a book

A► in a street

C

B

A

 

4. CROSS BRIDGE FOR TRAINS TO EDINBURGH

 

         

         

         

C► in a station

B► in a garage

A► in a bank

C

B

A

 

5. KEEP IN A COLD PLACE

 

         

         

         

C► on food

B► on furniture

A► on clothes

 

Question 6 –10

 In this section you must choose the word which best fits each space in the text

below.

 For questions 6 to 1 0, mark one letter A, B, or C on Your answer sheet

                                                     THE STARS

There are millions of stars in the sky. If you look (6)...............the sky on a clear night,

it is possible to se about 3000 stars. They look small, but they are really

(7)..............big hot balls of burning gas. Some of them are huge, but others are much

smaller, like our planet Earth. The biggest stars are very bright, but they only live for a

short time. Every day new stars (8)..........born and old stars die. All the stars are very

far away. The light from the nearest star takes more (9)..........four years to reach

Earth. Hundreds of years ago, people (10)............stars, like the North Star, to know

which direction to travel in. Today you can still see that star.

C

B

AA

 

6.

 

         

  

 

         

 

         

 

 C► on

 

B► up

    

A► at

C

B

A

 

7.

         

         

         

C► much

B► too

 

A► very

 

C

B

A

 

8.

         

         

         

C► are

 

B► be

A► is

C

B

A

 

9.

         

         

         

C► than

B► of

A► that

 

C

B

A

 

10.

         

         

         

C► using

B► used

A► use

 

Question 11 - 15

 In this section you must choose the word which best fits each

. space in the texts.

 For questions 11 to 20, mark one letter A, B, C or D on your Answer Sheet.

                                Good smiles ahead for young teeth

Older Britons are the worst in Europe when it comes to keeping their teeth. But

British youngsters (11)............more to smile about because (12).............teeth are among the best. Almost 80% of Britons over 65 have lost all ore some (13).............their teeth according to a World Health Organization survey. Eating too (14)............sugar is part of the problem.

Among (15)............, 12-year-olds have on average only three missing, decayed or filled teeth

D

C

BB

A

 

11.

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

D► having

 

C► have  

 

B► got

    

A►getting

D

C

B

A

 

12.

         

         

         

         

D► theirs

C► them

B► his

A► their 

 

D

C

B

A

13.

 

         

         

         

         

D► between

C► among

B► of

A► from

 

D

C

B

A

14.

 

         

         

         

 

         

D► deal

C► many

B► lot

A►  much

D

C

B

A

15.

 

         

         

         

         

D► family

 

C► children

B► people

A►  person

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 16 – 20

                           Christopher Columbus and the New World

On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail from Spain to find a new route to

India, China and Japan. At this time, most people thought you would fall off the edge of the world if you sailed too far. Yet sailors such as Columbus had seen how a ship appeared to get lower and lower on the horizon as it sailed away. For Columbus this (16)...........that the world was round. He (17)...........to his men about the distance travelled each day. He did not want them to think that he did not (18)............exactly where they were going. (19).............., on October 12, 1492, Columbus and his men landed on a small island he named San Salvador. Columbus believed he was in Asia, (20).............he was actually in the Caribbean.

 

D

C

BB

A

 

16.

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

D► having

 

C► have  

 

B► got

    

A►getting

D

C

B

A

 

17.

         

         

         

         

D► theirs

C► them

B► his

A► their 

 

D

C

B

A

18.

 

         

         

         

         

D► between

C► among

B► of

A► from

 

D

C

B

A

19.

 

         

         

         

 

         

D► deal

C► many

B► lot

A►  much

D

C

B

A

20.

 

         

         

         

         

D► family

 

C► children

B► people

A►  person

 

 

 

 

 

Question 21 - 30

 In this section you must choose the word or phrase which best completes each

sentence.

 For questions 21 to 40, mark one letter A, B, C or D on your Answer Sheet.

D

C

BB

A

 

21. The children won't go to sleep.......we leave a light on outside their bedroom.

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

D► but

 

C► unless

 

B►otherwise

    

A► except

D

C

B

A

 

22. I´ll give you my spare keys in case you...home before me.

         

         

         

         

D► get

C► will get

B► got

A► would get

 

D

C

B

A

23. My holiday in Paris gave me a great..........to improve my French accent.

 

         

         

         

         

D► possibility

 

C► hope

B►chance

A►occasion

D

C

B

A

24. The singer ended the concert...........her most popular song.

 

         

         

         

 

         

D► as

C► in

B► with

 

A► by

D

C

B

A

5. Because it had not rained for several months, there was a............of water.

 

         

         

         

         

D► waste

C► scare 

B► drop 

A►shortage

         

         

         

         

26. I ´ve always.............you as my best friend.

 

         

         

         

         

D► supposed

C► meant

B► thought

A► regarded

         

         

         

         

27.  She came to live her............a month ago.

 

         

         

         

         

D► almost

 

C► already

B►beyond

A► quite

         

         

         

         

28. Don´t make such a..........! The dentist is only going to look at your teeth.

 

         

         

         

         

D► reaction

C► worry

B► trouble

A► fuss

         

         

         

         

29. He spent a long time looking for a tie which..........with his new shirt.

 

         

         

         

         

D► wore

C► went

B► made

A►  fixed

         

         

         

         

30. Fortunately,.........from a bump on the head, she suffered no serious injuries from her fall.

 

         

         

         

         

D► apart  

C► besides

B► except

A► other

                     

Question 31 – 40

D

C

BB

A

31. She had changed so much that.........anyone recognized her.

 

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

D►  nearly

 

C► not 

 

B► hardly

    

A► almost

D

C

B

A

32. ..........teaching English, she also writes children´s books.

 

         

         

         

         

D►  

Apart

C►

In addition

B►

As well

A►

Moreover

 

D

C

B

A

33. It was clear that the young couple were.........of taking charge of the restaurant

         

         

         

         

D► able

 

C► capable

B► reliable

 

A► responsible

D

C

B

A

34. The book.........of ten chapters, each one covering a different topic.

         

         

         

 

         

D► contains 

C► consists 

B► includes

A► comprises

D

C

B

A

35. Mary was disappointed with her new shirt as the color...........very quickly.

         

         

         

         

D► faded

 

C► vanished

B► died

A► bleached

         

         

         

         

36. National leaders from all over the world are expected o attend the......meeting.

         

         

         

         

D► apex 

C► top

B► summit

A► peak

 

         

         

         

         

37. Jane remained calm when she won the lottery and......about her business as if nothing had happened.

         

         

         

         

D► moved   

C►  went

B► brought

A► came

 

         

         

         

         

38. I suggest we.........outside the stadium tomorrow at 8.30.

         

         

         

         

D► will meet  

C► met  

B► meet

A►meeting

 

         

         

         

         

39. My remarks were..........as a joke, but she was offended by them.

         

         

         

         

D►  supposed

C► meant 

B► thought

A► pretended

         

         

         

         

40. You ought to take up swimming for the..........of your health.

         

         

         

         

D►  cause

C► sake

B► relief

A►concern 

                       

                                                                Part 2

 

Do not start this part unless told to do so by your test supervisor

Questions 41 – 45

 In this section you must choose the word which best fits each

space in the texts.

 For questions 41 to 45, mark one letter A, B, C or D on your Answer Sheet.

                                                      CLOCKS

The clock was the first complex mechanical machinery to enter the home,

(41)………..it was too expensive for the (42)……….person until the 19th century, when (43)……….production techniques lowered the price.

 Watches were also developed, but they (44)……….luxury items until 1868,

When the first cheap pocket watch was designed in Switzerland. Watches later

became (45)………available, and Switzerland became the world´ s leading watch

manufacturing centre for the next 100 years.

 

D

C

BB

A

41.

 

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

D►  average

 

C► otherwise 

 

B► although

    

A►despite

D

C

B

A

42.

 

         

         

         

         

D► common

C► general

B►medium

A►average

 

D

C

B

A

43.

         

         

         

         

D► mass 

 

C► wide

B►large

 

A►  vast

D

C

B

A

44.

         

         

         

 

         

D► remained   

C► kept  

B►endured

A►  lasted

D

C

B

A

45.

         

         

         

         

D► widely

 

C► greatly

B► chiefly

A► mostly

                         

 

Questions 46 – 50

                                          Dublin City Walks

What better way of getting to know a new city than by walking around it?

Whether you choose the Medieval Walk, which will (46)……….you to the

1000 years ago, find out about the more (47)……….history of the city on the Eighteenth Century Walk, or meet the ghosts of Dublin´s many writers on The Literary Walk, we know you will enjoy the experience.

Dublin City Walks (48)..……..twice daily. Meet your guide at 10.30 a.m. or

2.30 p.m. at the Tourist Information Office. No advance (49)………..is necessary. Special (50)………are available for families, children and parties of more than ten people.

D

C

BB

A

 

46.

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

D►  show

 

C►  move

 

B► present

    

A►

introduce

D

C

B

A

47.

 

         

         

         

         

D►  close  

C► recent

B► late

A► near

 

D

C

B

A

48.

 

         

         

         

         

D► function 

 

C► work

B►occur

 

A►takeplace

D

C

B

A

49.

 

         

         

         

 

         

D►  booking

C►warning  

B►reserving

A►paying

D

C

B

A

50.

 

         

         

         

         

D► rates

 

C► fees

B► costs

A► funds

                       

 

Question 51– 60

 In this section, you must choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence.

 For questions 51 to 60, mark one letter A, B, C or D on your Answer Sheet.

D

C

BB

A

51. If you´re not too tired we could have a……..of tennis after lunch.

 

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

         

 

D► party 

 

C► game  

 

B► play

    

A► match

 

D

C

B

A

 

52. Don´t you get tired………watching TV every nigh?

 

 

         

         

         

         

D►  at  

C► of

B► by

A► with

 

D

C

B

A

53. Go on, finish the dessert. It needs………up because it won´t stay fresh until.

         

         

         

         

D►  

eaten

 

C►

to eat

B►

eating

 

A►

eat

D

C

B

A

54. We´re not used to……….invited to very formal occasions.

         

         

         

 

         

D► having  

C►  being

B► have

A► be

D

C

B

A

55. I´d rather we……….meet this evening, because I´m very tired.

         

         

         

         

D►

didn´t

 

C►

hadn´t

B► shouldn´t

A► wouldn´t

         

         

         

         

56. She obviously didn´t want to discuss the matter so I didn´t……..the point.

         

         

         

         

D►  

pursue  

C►

follow

B►  

chase

A►

maintain

         

         

         

         

57. Anyone………after the start of the play is not allowed in until the interval.

         

         

         

         

D► arrived  

C►  arriving

B►has arrived

A► arrives

         

         

         

         

58. This new magazine is ………...with interesting stories and useful information.

         

         

         

         

D► compiled

C►  thick

B►packed

A► full

         

         

         

         

59. The restaurant was far too noisy to be………to relaxed conversation.

         

         

         

         

D► fruitful 

C► practical 

B► suitable

A►   conducive

         

         

         

         

60. In this branch of medicine, it is vital to ………..open to new ideas.

         

         

         

         

D►

remain 

C►

hold

B► continue

A►

 stand

                   

 

 

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