Document Type : NTLL Conference: Original Article

Author

Department of Educational Sciences, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The national curriculum is a document that determines and explains the master plan of the curriculum and the framework of the country's curriculum system to achieve the goals of education in Iran and causes the unification and coherence of all program components and the modernization and reconstruction of curricula based on the philosophy of education of I.R.Iran. Besides, it legalized whole activities in the educational system to achieve educational goals. In order to evaluate the opportunities of e-learning in English language teaching based on the national curriculum, the content of this document was analyzed using the opinions of three education experts. To do this, eleven codes agreed upon by experts were used. In the end, it was identified that important opportunities for the curriculum include richness and design, application of technology, media, and educational technology. Thus, the national curriculum document clearly refers to e-learning opportunities in the use of educational media and technologies.

Keywords

  1. Introduction

In numerous social orders, with the expanding need for instructed individuals, customary strategies are not responsive, and the improvement of data innovation has added to the development and setting of online training as one of the significant techniques for schooling. With the improvement of the utilization of the Web, the propensity to utilize e-learning and make the most of its advantages has expanded, and this inclination is to such an extent that learning in any spot and whenever is known as the motto of e-learning and it additionally permits students and teachers to take an interest in learning-related exercises and access a more extensive scope of assets (Montazer & Ghashoul Dare Sibi, 2021). The novel highlights of e-learning in ongoing many years have expanded the interest for students and instructive help communities to utilize this instructive strategy (Tiyari et al, 2016).

Attractions of utilizing e-learning are advantages, for example, No time or space limitations (instruction for everybody all over); limitless affirmation limit; thinking about singular gifts; spreading the way of life of free learning; utilization of experienced educators in a more extensive field (topographically and in number); capacity to adjust and advance classes, practices and talk with singular requirements (Salavati et al., 2021; Mirmoradi, 2018); Adaptability in altering or evolving content; Speed up preparing; Non-instructive advantages; Assisting with securing the climate Diminish traffic-Lessen air and clamor contamination, collaboration and communication; Dauntless learning; Capacity to choose various degrees of learning; And decrease the requirement for shut and actual space (genuine classes); and so on (Kouhestani Nejadtari et al., 2019).

The capability of e-learning in the field of English language instructing is likewise irrefutable because of the bountiful assets and broadness of the English language, which is considered by the major instructive projects of the Iranian instructive framework. Among the major instructive projects in the Iranian schooling framework, we can refer to the public education program.

The public educational plan is another component that is created and carried out inside the advanced instruction framework (Abedi et al., 2018 ). No significant educational program with a public character was created in Iran other than the arrangement and declaration of the public education plan in 2012 (Salsebili, 2016). In the field of instruction in the Iranian training framework, every educational plan had its own educational program, however, with the aggregation and correspondence of the public educational plan, an endeavor has been made to make solidarity in the public schooling educational programs (Ali Taghavian, 2018). One of the primary highlights of the public educational plan, which is characterized underneath the archive of major change, is the methodology of the way of thinking of instruction, which depends on the standards of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Salsebili, 2016).

Quite possibly the main highlights of the public education program for unknown dialects are the accentuation on the capacity to convey and tackle issues so the individual after preparing can impart utilizing every one of the four language abilities, including tuning in, talking, perusing, and composing, to get and send meaning. “The language educational program ought to acquaint understudies with the semantic design of the words and constructions expected to convey successfully and helpfully worldwide” (Secretariat of the Higher Education Council, 2012, p. 37).

The public educational program comprises of five components that are clarified in a related and entwined applied organization and in the down to earth cycle of training, every one of these components as per the necessities and states of the understudy can be the start of the understudy's instructive travel and reinforce and develop different components (Imanpour & Nazari, 2019; Khoshkhooei & Aznab, 2016). “Among the five components, the component of reason has a focal viewpoint and different components around it are characterized and changed” (Secretariat of the Higher Education Council, 2012, pp. 15-16).

 

Figure 1: Five elements of the national curriculum

Recognizing the opportunities of e-learning in the upstream documents of the country is of great importance because, in this regard, it allows decision-makers and implementers of educational activities to have the necessary activities and demands. On the other hand, some opportunities have been neglected in the upstream documents that can be found by examining the documents.

For this purpose and in this article, the opportunities of e-learning in the field of English language teaching in the national curriculum as a reference for curriculum planning in Iran are examined to answer the following research question:

  1. What are the implications of e-learning opportunities in the National Curriculum Document?

 

  1. Literature Review

A review of the research background shows that there is no credible research on the support of the National Curriculum Document for e-learning in Iran. Among the researches that are somewhat similar to this issue, we can mention the research of Kouhestani Nejadtari et al. (2019) in which the media literacy of teachers has been studied based on the national document, and the results show that the document supports the increase of teachers media literacy.

On the other hand, the experiences of other countries in this regard are different. An overview of China's national college curriculum reveals that the document uses e-learning to teach a second language and pays special attention to the use of MOOC and flipped classes (xu et al., 2017). Besides, English (2016) has found in his research that attention to digital literacy and the use of technological tools has been considered as an important part of language learning in American educational documents.

Cinganotto (2019) points to the important orientation of the Italian educational system in using online training in national projects and considers its importance for this country.

Contrary to previous findings, some studies also point to the neglect of e-learning in national documents. For example, research by Lavrenteva and Orland-Barak (2015) which examined 14 different national documents shows that paying attention to the learning culture has been more important than the learning method and its tools.

 

  1. Methodology

To achieve the expected goal, the present study is among the applied research that has been done with a qualitative approach and descriptive content analysis method. Document content analysis is a form of qualitative research in which documents are interpreted by the researcher to give voice and meaning around an assessment topic. Analyzing documents incorporates coding content into themes similar to how focus group or interview transcripts are analyzed (Bowen, 2009). The interpretive validity was used as a validation method and Investigator triangulation was used as authenticity for current qualitative research.

  

3.1. Design and Context of the Study

Based on qualitative study nature, to make an answer for the current research question, the texts of the National Curriculum Document have been used with the help of the citation analysis method.

To analyze the content of the document, a study panel consisting of three experts in educational technology studied and adapted the document to the features of e-learning. Content analysis was also performed in three stages before preparing the analysis (organizing), reviewing the materials (message), and processing the results. For this purpose, an agreement was reached on eleven codes and National Curriculum Document was analyzed based on it.

3.2. Participants

According to the research plan, the participants in this study are three educational technology experts who have worked together to review the National Curriculum document.

 

  1. Results

To achieve the result, the National Curriculum Document was reviewed and analyzed. For this purpose, the content of the document was reviewed based on e-learning opportunities. Texts with semantic similarity in the curriculum document lead to the creation of a theme and ultimately a code. Finally, the following codes were extracted from the entire Document:

     Table 1.

                 Extracted Codes from National Curriculum Document

Code number

Code

Abbreviation

1

Facility Usage

FU

2

Variety of educational resources and attractiveness

V&A

3

Adaptation to individual needs and differences

AIND

4

Information Literacy

IL

5

Technology

T

6

Self-help and personal improvement

SHPI

7

Public access

PA

8

Multimedia

MM

9

Educational Technology

ET

10

Development of vocational schools

DVS

11

Competencies

C

 

The original text of the National Curriculum Document was categorized based on a set of extracted codes, and each part of the document that provides an opportunity for e-learning was categorized under the same code. Table 2 shows the extracted text based on the code identification number:

 

Table 2.

National Curriculum Extracted Text and Number of Codes

Text of the Article/ Clause

Identification number of code

Article/ Clause No.

Curricula should constantly pay attention to the central role of teachers and educators in educational leadership, prioritizing cultivation over education, enriching the learning environment, activating the educator in the learning process, and encouraging educators to learn.

2

1/9/3

Curricula should pay attention to the current and future needs of educators and society at the local, national and global levels and in the cultural, economic, scientific, social, technological, and in line with, vision document and approved policies in a comprehensive and balanced manner.

3-5

1/9/4

Curricula should provide the necessary, appropriate motivation and context for lifelong learning and self-improvement for educators as well as for teachers and educators.

3-6-7

1/9/7

7/1/4/ 2 Ability to use technological tools and products

1-5

2/4/1

29/1/4/2 Self-learning and self-improvement skills, entrepreneurship and self-employment;

6-11

 

2/26/26  Interest in making objects and using technology products;

5

2/4/2

16/1/5/2 Utilization of information and communication technologies

1-5

2/5/1

4/3/5/2   Development and acceptance of new sciences and new technologies and the desire to upgrade the scientific and technological level

1-5

2/5/3

7/4/6/2 Application of information and communication technology in work and life

1-5-11

 

5/5/6/2 Valuing study and research, continuous and lifelong learning and self-learning

6

 

8/5/6/2 Commitment to ethical principles and values in the use of science and technology

4

 

4/3/3  Diversity and multiplicity of resources, methods, and learning opportunities

As the existential capacity of educators is different from each other and each of them acts differently (learning and cognitive styles, etc.) in the process of acquiring and developing existential capacities, in selecting and organizing the content of curricula, a variety of opportunities should be provided for educators and those involved in education to apply teaching and evaluation strategies, and multiple learning resources (educational materials and media, space and people). This diversity must also take into account gender and social differences.

2-9

3/3/4

Joint competencies and learning

Work, practice, and struggle

Continuous Learning, Self-Management, Participation, Collaboration, Working Skills with Others, Communication Skills, Leadership Skills, Study and Research, Use of Information and Communication Technology, Product Production

5-6-11

¾

Technological and computational skills are tools in the service of desirable learning and also in the service of propagating and disseminating Islamic knowledge and values.

6-9-11

3/6/2

Orientation to work and technology in accordance with the goals of religious life and Islamic culture in the field of work and technology is emphasized.

4-6-11

3/6/2

Different health and appropriate methods are used for health education and physical education, according to the hardware and software conditions. Some of them are: games, demonstrations and workshops, visits and camps, competitions and conferences, the use of art activities, small group work, and real-world situations that can include software simulated spaces to real-world situations.

9

3/6/5

Necessity and function of the field: According to Islamic teachings, work and employment have educational value, and through work, man tames the rebellious soul and polishes his existential personality, establishes his identity, and prepares the ground for his existential development And also due to the rapid growth of technological, social and economic changes, the complexities of the world of work along with the existence of challenges and concepts such as sustainable and comprehensive development, lifelong learning, education for all and equal opportunities, decent work, globalization, achieving indicators and development standards are needed The people of the country in every part of their social and professional life should continuously develop their knowledge, skills, and attitudes based on careful planning to pursue purposeful life and work in a knowledge-based society. Technology education, work, and skills training will lead to personal development, increase productivity, participation in social and economic life, reduce poverty, increase income and development. This training improves the distribution of human resources and investing in it is considered an investment for the future.

6-7

3/6/6

Page 89: Basic competencies: literacy, calculation, and use of technology

3-5-6

3/6/6

Page 90: Competence in the use of information and communication technology

5

 

Page 92: Technological perspective will prevail in the formulation of learning activities at all levels of education. At the first level of the elementary course, work-related skills are fully integrated with other areas of learning. At the second and third levels, work-related skills will be defined and put into practice in the form of projects based on local needs, talents, interests, and situations. In addition to integrating with other areas of learning, information and communication technology is also provided independently.

2-3-5-9

 

Page 99: It is worth mentioning that the topics and subsets of the courses in this field of learning (Among the topics such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, astronomy, new energies, connection with the natural environment, and…) are determined according to the academic period, the individual differences of the educators (Including gender, environmental differences, and …) in the curriculum guide of this field.

2-3

3/6/9

6/3/4 Learning environments should be attractive, lovable, uplifting, and motivating for educators.

2

4/3

3/4/4 In the teaching-learning process, the learner is a lifelong learner who is constantly learning.

6

4/4

4/3/7/4 A variety of suitable educational software to be used in technical and vocational schools.

2-9

4/7

8/3/7/4 Information systems should be developed with an emphasis on the use of IT and ICT in technical and vocational schools.

10

 

10/3/7/4 Multimedia educational systems and computer software should be used in technical and vocational schools.

8-9

 

1/1/2/6 Principle of using open educational packages: The diversity of learning resources, attention to the program-oriented approach, requires a multimedia approach instead of teaching in a single media way. It is necessary for the governmental and non-governmental sectors to work together to think about diversifying various learning resources, whether written or electronic, for teachers, educators, and trainers.

2-8-9

6/2/1

2/1/2/6 Principle of Indigenousness: The education system and the non-governmental sector deserve to make every effort to produce learning materials and media using indigenous knowledge and technology. If there is an urgent need to import some learning materials and media, use the opinions of curriculum planning experts and try as much as possible to localize them inspired by imported tools.

2-8-9

 

3/1/2/6 Principle of attention to communication and information technology: Today, the use of computers has become common in all areas of life, including in various sectors of education. In the training process, the computer can be used for individual training, saving and reading information (whether text or image), connecting to global information networks, asking questions via email, using educational CD, experiment and simulation situations, especially in the fields of learning work and technology, experimental sciences, Persian language, and literature

5-6-9

 

8/1/2/6 Principle of versatility: The design of materials and media should be done according to the various needs of the curriculum, including experimental, humanities, technical and professional sciences. Nowadays, curriculum planners, especially in general education courses, tend to organize the content of curricula in an intertwined way due to reasons such as reducing the number of courses and integration in learning. Training materials need to be designed in such a way that they can be used as versatile as possible.

2-8-9

 

10/1/2/6 Principle of Supervision: Policy-making and supervision in the field of materials, media, and learning centers is a government (government) task, but other matters (such as: development, production, distribution, and effectiveness) can be delegated and outsourced.

3-8

 

8/2/2/6 Launching a material management system, media, learning centers and resources in the province and the country in order to monitor the use of materials, media, and resources by schools, Exchange of experiences and initiatives of schools and educational districts with each other, registration of rights arising from initiatives (intellectual property), needs assessment and evaluation, Assessing the effectiveness of materials and resources and establishing learning resource centers at the school, regional and provincial levels.

2-8-9

 

1/2/2/7 Creating a section for research and "curriculum planning" at the level of the deputy of the research organization and educational planning with the mission of conducting studies, research, design, and guidance in curriculum planning and Establishment of a "Center for National Curriculum Monitoring", a "Center for Studies and Curriculum Planning" and a "Monitoring and Evaluation Department for Educational Materials and Media"

3-8

 

2/2/2/7 Creating a department for "production of materials and media" in the organization, independent of the Deputy of Curriculum Planning to organize and use the scientific and educational capacities of the country to develop the transfer of production of materials and media or action in centralized production.

1-8

 

9/1/3/7 Designing the structure of the educational package and the required materials and media based on the requirements of the national curriculum

2-8

 

11/1/7/7 Production of materials and media required for accreditation and its experimental implementation.

8

 

 

After summarizing the extracted codes, it was determined that the sum of all the codes can be seen as categorized in the following table:

 

Table 3.

Sum of extracted Codes from National Curriculum Document

National Curriculum Document

Codes

 

C

DVS

ET

MM

PA

SHPI

T

IL

AIND

V&A

FU

5

2

10

10

2

8

11

2

7

10

6

Total

 

  1. Discussion

The National Curriculum Document introduces a whole new set of requirements for curriculum components by introducing a new goal-setting paradigm consisting of five elements (thinking and reasoning, faith, science, action, and ethics) in the four areas of teacher communication (with self, God, people, creation). Approach, content, teaching and learning strategies, assessment create an educational program. Therefore, according to the Strategic Transformation Document of the Education System, the support and cooperation of educators will inevitably be one of the main requirements for the successful implementation of transformational programs. The necessities of teacher orientation training include the above-mentioned categories.

Based on the extracted codes, it has been determined that the most frequent feature of the National Curriculum Document refers to the use of technology. After this component, the document's attention to diversifying learning resources and making them attractive is significant. In fact, the National Curriculum Document provides an opportunity for e-learning with an emphasis on diversifying resources. In the following, the extracted codes directly refer to the use of multimedia and educational technology, which emphasizes multimedia as an opportunity to expand e-learning in the educational system. Another emphasis of the National Curriculum Document is self-help. The document seeks individual development. This individual development based on individual learning can be well achieved through e-learning.

The Iranian national curriculum document, along with researches by Kouhestani Nejadtari et al. (2019), English (2016), and Cinganotto (2019), pays attention to the importance of e-learning. However, this attention is general and is not in detail, or like research xu et al. (2017) does not deal with usable methods in detail. On the other hand, in this document, unlike research by Lavrenteva and Orland-Barak (2015), it is clear that the importance of e-learning tools and methods in the national curriculum document has been fully considered.

 

  1. Conclusion

In the public educational program archive, as per the subject of study and dependent on the investigation of eleven codes, the utilization of advances (particularly instructive advances in the field of growing proficiency and improving the personal satisfaction of the overall population, enhancing instructive substance and instructive projects) is accentuated. Obviously, in light of the substance of the archive, the arrangement of the fitting framework has been accentuated. This archive expressly affirms the utilization of innovation in different fields of instruction in 24 cases and in 10 cases it has certainly affirmed this. To grow the use of innovation in training, it is imperative to focus on the Islamic way of life and virtues.

In general, it can be said that the Iranian curriculum document has the necessary emphasis on e-learning. In this regard, the use of multimedia and technologies has been considered and emphasized, and the orientation of the educational system is to diversify the educational content and make them attractive. On the other hand, personalized learning and personal development are also considered in the curriculum, which can be achieved through e-learning; however, there is a lack of support for e-learning methods and tools in this document

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